What You Should Know About Ice Ages & Climate Change
Written by David Wrixon EurIng
It became apparent from investigation of the Variability of the Gravitational Constant that Jupiter’s orbit is affecting the Sun’s surface temperature and driving the Sunspot Cycle which appear to be triggered at its Aphelion and suppressed at Perihelion.
Saturn has even greater eccentricity than Jupiter and it is noted that it was at Perihelion at the end of 1972 which seems to account for the Low Solar Maximum at that time and a particular dip after the main peak. So, whilst cycle periods are not influenced by Saturn, it does impact on their magnitude, and it seems likely that it will have augmented in 1957-58 as well as 1990.
Uranus will have been at Perihelion in 2008, whilst being at Aphelion in 1966, just after the cycle peak. Saturn will have been at Perihelion in 1914 and as 1953, again causing suppression, whilst Uranus was at Perihelion in 1922. It is therefore clear that Sunspot Cycles reflect harmonics of the influences of Saturn and Uranus.
However, it then become clear that the Aphelion of Jupiter precedes a quiet period, whilst the Perihelion of Jupiter seems to promote greater Sunspot Activity. Which appears to conflict with the behaviour of Saturn and Uranus.
It would therefore appear that the activity of the other two is more about counter-balancing the actions of Jupiter, and that is weird because at this stage no information has been processed relating to physical alignments of the orbitals.
This in turn lead to interest in the very significant resonances between the Giant Planets. The Orbital Resonances between Jupiter and Saturn are 5:2 whilst Neptune to Uranus is 51:26, which is very close to 2:1. Even Pluto has a 2:3 Resonance with Neptune.
The resonance between Saturn and Uranus is 20:7 which has been noted to be close to 3:1. It was speculated that such resonances the basis of Milankovitch Cycles which appear to be underlying long-term drivers behind Sunspot Cycles and Solar Maxima and Minima.
Attention then focused on Quaternary Ice Age cycles. However, the Orbital Resonances did not immediately appear to have any great significance in terms of climatic cycles on Earth.
Attention the jumped to the Perigee Precession Resonances of the Gas and Ice Giants. The precession rates in second of arc for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are respectively 6.55, 19.50, 3.34 and Neptune is 0.36.
This fits with the assumption that Neptune has negligible precession because it has no significant superior planets. It is then noted that precession rate of Saturn is approximately three times that of Jupiter, whilst Uranus is about half that of Jupiter.
The Precession Periods in years for the Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus are therefore respectively are 194,012, 64,671 and 388,024. But it is actually the catch-up period for one lapping another that is of interested.
This can be determined from summation of the geometric series as 1+ 1/(x-1). This means that catch up time of Saturn is approximately 3/2*64,671 = 97,006 years which ties in well will Milankovitch Cycles. Calculation to greater precision using the actual ratios of the Precession yields a result of 97,380 Years.
Almost exactly a million years ago, the frequency flipped from 40,000-year cycles to 100,000 years, with a very substantial increase in amplitude of the variation. This previous frequency must also be explained.
The hypothesis for this change is that previously, Uranus was also involved in the long-term gravitational cycles, and this involvement was possible due to more pronounced elliptical orbits of both Saturn and Uranus at that time which would have made both planets more influential.
To a degree, it is likely that this was balanced by Jupiter’s orbit being less elliptical at that time. This change would seem to have involved a transfer of Potential Energy from Uranus and Saturn to Jupiter, which is likely to be part of a long-term cyclical exchange between the three.
The implication is Uranus and Saturn would then be able to trigger more minor Ice Ages through their joint action without any involvement from Jupiter. It seems likely that such joint action then promotes an increase in elliptical orbit of Jupiter, just as the joint actions of Jupiter and Saturn would have promoted increase in the elliptical orbits of Saturn and Uranus.
Of course, at times, Ice Ages would involve all three planets acting in unison which would suggest increased severity and duration. In essence, it can be assumed that for each Ice Age which involves Jupiter and Saturn, there would be alternate coincidence that just involve Saturn and Uranus.
Neptune will have minimal effect on the production of Solar Minima because it has little eccentricity to its orbit, but Uranus will with its Perihelion potentially reinforcing Ice Ages involving Jupiter at the end of each cycle.
This is ultimately self-limiting as the internal temperature differential drops rapidly due to the disruption of the magnetic containment bottle and the moderation of perturbative gravitational influences.
There is then a short plateauing of surface temperatures before magnetic containment starts to become re- established. Surface temperature then starts to drop relatively steeply albeit it over extended timescales.
Note that the decline which is an exponential decay is nevertheless slower than the rise in temperature, which is very steep and unrelenting until thermal equilibrium is established.
Imagine the three Perihelions starting together on a single radial alignment. Then that for Saturn would pass the Perihelion Jupiter after 3/2 orbits and again after 3 full orbits. A full cycle is actually 8 orbits in which Time it would catch Jupiter 6 times.
During those 8 orbits it would catch Uranus 7 Times. Because the ratio of the orbital speeds between Jupiter and Uranus are constant each will be even distributed over the full cycle, whilst the temporal offset between the two series will follow a fixed ratio.
This can only result in an even distribution of coincidences because there is no inherent asymmetry. So, in 8 orbits there are 13 coincidences but every other one is a duplication, so Ice Age Period is equal to 8/13*64,671=39,797 years.
Having reasonably established that there is high likelihood that Ice Ages are governed by planetary motion within the Solar System, it then becomes necessary to firmly establish a mechanism. The significance of these longer cycles was then tied back to discussion under the Fallacy of Fusion Energy.
It now appeared to be clear that Sunspots arise due to the breaching of the Fusion containment that is provided by a Toroidal Magnetic Field that lies beneath the Solar Equator. However, there was enormous confusion over the relationship between the various cycles in play, and it became clear that Ice Ages are only features within larger cycles which are now described as Ice Houses, as it became clear that Earth has been completely free of Ice Ages for most of its history but the earliest Glacial Periods date back as far as life itself and even beyond.
It seemed inevitable that the basic drivers of Ice House, which appear to be more correctly described as events rather cycles, be must be understood before being able to correctly understand the underlying mechanisms that drive Ice Ages.
Furthermore, it is essential that any such understanding must explain not only the surges in Carbons Dioxide established from the Vostok Cores but also those of Methane, because whilst Climatologists are happy to attribute the recent surge in Carbon Dioxide to humans under the label of Anthropological Global Warming, much less is said about Methane.
The levels of this supposed even more potent Greenhouse Gas has recently surged exponentially in a very short period of time, and cannot reasonably be explained in the increase in dairy farming which is really culturally a European activity that has not expanded exponentially over the last quarter of century.
It should be noted that only European and Middle Eastern derived populations are genetically well adjusted to the consumption of dairy products and these account for less than a quarter of the global population.
The first known Glacial Periods occur during the Archean Eon, but relatively little is known about this period, but is current understood to be well after the appearance of Earth’s Moon, which might suggest that Minor Planets were well established by this era. Such cold interludes, which are seemingly related to the capture of Planets by the Sun, are best referred to as Ice House Periods, to distinguish them from the shorter duration events of Quaternary Ice Ages.
At this point, the effects on Earth’s Climate of such planetary captures is hypothetical, so support for such a theory must be sought from the Geological Record.
Rather speculatively, it hypothesised that the first Ice House Period relates to a Planet whose existence may be evidenced by the Asteroid Belt and may have been destroyed by Jupiter, possibly resulting in the accumulation of some of its Moons with Europa with its more Earth like characteristics possible picked up at Perihelion.
It is, however, quite plausible that the sequence is incorrect in regard to this hypothesised planet and that of Uranus and Neptune.
The Mesoarchean is a geologic era within the Archean Eon, spanning 3,200 to 2,800 million years ago and fossils show that stromatolites have grown since this period. The Pongola glaciation occurred around 2,900 million years ago with the Vaalbara supercontinent breaking up about 2,800 million years ago. This interestingly seems to correspond to the period of the Humboldt Orogeny that formed Antarctica.
Neptune is believed to be the oldest residual Giant Planet due to it slower rotational velocity. Arriving some 2.3 Billion years ago, it is assumed to have triggered the Proterozoic Period. This essentially dropped the temperature sufficiently to kickstart Life on Earth and caused the Great Oxygenation and an important extinction which are a common feature in Marine environments following periods of glaciation.
Note that the warming after this particular glaciation is only exceed by the Permian Extinction and the subsequent Cretaceous Period.
The Huronian Glaciation extended from 2.4 to 2.1 billion years ago during the Paleoproterozoic era and followed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), a time when increased atmospheric Oxygen decreased atmospheric Methane. The Oxygen combined with the methane to form Carbon Dioxide and Water, which do not retain heat as well as Methane does. The glaciation led to a mass extinction on Earth, possibly due to a huge increase acidity of the Oceans.
Currently, there is no consensus on what global event is a suitable candidate to mark the start of the Cryogenian Period. Whilst the term hypothesised is still used in this context because it is a new theory, the scope for doubt that the Cryogenian Period ( from Greek meaning “cold” and meaning “birth”), a geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era that lasted from 720 to 635 million years ago, was caused by Saturn.
Saturn is hypothesised to have been capture by the Sun in the late Cambrian. It is assumed to initially had a very high inclination and eccentricity which account for the size of the subsequent Ice Age, and the Mexican Hat profile. Its high residual Spin Rate also suggest a highly elliptical original orbit. Saturn’s huge ring system also support the idea that it has swept much larger areas of the Solar System for longer than the other planets.
There is another extinction in the Ordovician, which must be due to another planet arriving. This is thought to be Uranus. It is assumed to have been knocked over by the later arrival of Jupiter. This assumption is based largely on the resonance between their Precessions. The Andean-Saharan glaciation occurred during the Palaeozoic from 450 to 420 million years ago, during the late Ordovician and the Silurian period.
The Permian Mass Extinction is also coincident with major Ice Age. This is considered to correspond with arrival of Jupiter. Jupiter is assumed to be a late arrival because it is very turbulent compared with the other Planets, with a very strong Magnetic Field. It is assumed to a have redefined the Invariable Plane rather than joined it, and in doing so determining the Sun’s Spin in the process.
The late Palaeozoic Ice House, formerly known as the Karoo ice age, was between 360–260 million years ago during which large land-based ice-sheets were present on Earth’s surface. There was a swift decrease of about 1% in the 13C/12C isotope ratio in carbonate rocks from the end-Permian warming.
This is the first, largest, and most rapid of a series of decreases and increases in 13C/12C ratio that continues until the isotope ratio abruptly stabilised in the middle Triassic, followed soon afterwards by the recovery of calcifying life forms that used Calcium Carbonate to build hard parts such as shells.
The Extinction was caused by a rapid rise in temperature and loss of solubility for both Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen which killed of 90% of Marine Life whilst accounting for the swift decrease of the C13 to C12 ratio, whilst resulting producing very strong supporting evidence that Carbon-13 derives from C14 from Carbon-12.
It is considered to be Deoxygenation that would have killed the species. The explanation is that Carbon Dioxide evolving from Ocean would date back to the Cambrian, at which point the cumulative conversion of Carbon-12 to Carbon-13 by Cosmic Rays as explained under Double Electron Capture and Beta Decay would have been much lower.
The Permian Extinction was followed by the Cretaceous Period which resulted in the formation of Limestones, notably Chalk. However, at the end of Triassic there was another relatively slight but prolonged cooling. It seems from the plots of Ice Ages that an initial failed cooling is generally followed by a thermal echo or series of thermal echoes.
But this cooling and the associated End of Triassic Extinction is now consensually linked with a huge increase in Volcanic Activity, and an associated massive increase in atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, which has been used extensively to support arguments for Anthropological Global Warming.
However, it would seem that the primary cause of extinction would be the acidification of the hydrosphere, which affected not only marine life but also disproportionately amphibians, probably due to elimination of their food chains. So, it appears that this warming was not simply a re-run of the Permian extinction.
Until he Ordovician Extinction most of the surviving life forms would have been aquatic. It is hardly surprising, however, in these post-glacial extinctions that there was huge pressure for them to leave the water.
This seems to be evidence by the fact that Lung Fish date from the Ordovician, and this also explains why Amphibians dominated after the Permian extinction. However, it begs the question as to what gave rise to this Volcanic Activity which resulted in the breaking up of the Pangea super-continent? And the obvious answer would be an external gravitational perturbation.
It now seems that is was cumulative effect of the gravitational perturbation of Jupiter that gave rise to this Volcanic Activity, and this is supported by the formation and age of Olympus Mons on Mars. It would appear that both Mars and Earth were drawn outward by gravitational pull of Jupiter as it gradually lost its initial eccentricity.
The Cretaceous is not generally recognised as a period of Mass Extinction, but the conditions that produced the Chalk never returned. During this period organic matter never fully decomposed to deoxidation of the water, and it was this that lead to laying down of Fossil Fuels.
There would of course have been mirrored during the Carboniferous. This period finally ended at the end of the Eocene with yet another Mass Extinction, but this time with a huge shift to a colder environment presumably resulting in more oxygenation but also higher acidity. This era is marked by the formation of the Antarctic Ice sheet and progressive cooling which has largely continued to the modern era.
The warming of that is generally attributed to Anthropological Climate Change, is characterised by the bleaching of corals. When water is too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white.
It would seem that the loss of algae results from a loss of nutrients that sustain it. It also would appear that, whilst in deeper water the evolution of Carbon Dioxide causes algal blooms, in warm shallow water this would tend to quickly result in depletion of this basic nutrient that is required by coral and algae alike.
Clearly, there is a symbiotic relationship, and it would seem that the coral depends on the algae for other important nutrients, however, it seems fairly clear that where there is direct competition for the primary energy source which appears to the Carbon Dioxide, that the coral has evolved to win out over the algae.
It has long been known that Algae take up Carbon Dioxide for Photosynthesis and that this Carbon is stored on the sea floor. It is also now reported that this process is happening with double the efficiency previously suspected.
However, it has largely been assumed that the Carbon is in effect being removed from the Atmosphere, but this actually now considered nonsense. Whilst, the release of additional Carbon Dioxide by humans might account for some of the source of Carbon being recycled by Algae, the vast majority has evolved from the Oceans themselves as they have warmed since the last Ice Age.
The way that Algae suddenly bloom in warm weather is clear evidence that the increase in the food source that they are taking advantage of derives from Carbon Dioxide. This would previously be dissolved in the water that is evolving out due to the heat rather than an unexplained sudden massive absorption from the atmosphere as is currently implied.
Whilst Algae are creating long-term fossil fuel that deposits on the Ocean floor, but much of the evolving Carbon Dioxide will be released directly into the atmosphere. Any Carbon stored and released in the way will be depleted of Carbon-14 and will tend to resemble the isotope profile of the emission of Fossil Fuels.
It therefore clear that the contribution to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuels derived from the Carbon-14 records will have been drastically over-estimated by Climatologists.
This then brings the argument to the Elephant in the Room which is why do the orbits of Planets affect the temperature? Whilst this actually has a simple explanation, it has caused huge confusion. The answer is that, as explain under Gravitational Model of Fusion, the fuel of the Sun is actually the Space or Aether that surrounds it.
Space is Potential Energy and Fusion is consuming that Potential Energy and ultimate that Space. When the Planet is at huge distance, the Sun does this quite freely, but when a Planet with a highly elliptical orbit has huge angular momentum at Perihelion that consumption is constrained, because the Planet is consuming much of that Potential Energy to provide its Kinetic Energy.
The consumption of Potential Energy must be uniform in spherical space so as to conform with the Principle of Least Action. The Energy required by the Planet is therefore denied to the Star, and the consumption of Space inside the orbit of the Planet at Perihelion is Zero. Gradually, the Star imperceptibly steals the Space between Aphelion and Perihelion, so the orbit becomes circular.
This in turn means is that Fusion slows as highly energetic objects close on the Sun at Perihelion and it runs faster at Aphelion. This at least explains why the arrival of an energetic new Planet would precipitate an Ice House until sufficient eccentricity is consumed to allow Fusion to re-establish to the point where the Ice Sheet can thaw.
It appears that these effects have little fundamental resemblance to the more saw-tooth patterns of Quaternary Ice Ages which are not caused by the arrival of new planets but form not only a cyclical pattern but one with a worrying long-term trend, as the coldest periods now rival those of the Ice House that formed on the capture of the Planets.
This can of course be explained by all the Planets shifting over time towards orbits with the radial distance of the Perihelion, thereby causing the Sun’s Fusion to slow. It is postulated that Jupiter then lacked the necessary energy to precipitate an Ice Age on its own.
The interpretation of the initially sudden drops in temperature is that this is the period when the first Saturn and Jupiter and then later Uranus established Resonances. It is considered that the basic Resonances between the Planets themselves formed initially, but the periodic temperature oscillations only developed as a consequence of the establishment of Resonances between their Precessions.
This trend must be considered disturbing because only a small fraction of the Quaternary Period has temperatures that we would consider normal, but the progression is likely to be a degree self-limiting as the ultimate equilibrium position might be fairly similar to the peaks exhibited by Saturn and Jupiter.
There do appear, however, to be gaps in the arguments which relate the differences in Earth and Venus and to have even a basic understanding of what is happening here, it seems necessary to return to the Archean Era. It is important to understand why the hydrosphere formed on Earth and what the conditions were really like during that era.
The first thing that needs to be understood, which appears previously to have been neglected, is where the Sun as mainstream star was in its development and correct currently models of that development are anyway. Using current models, the Sun is assumed to about 4.6 billion years old and halfway through its main sequence.
This suggests that it was far less luminous during the Archean Era, although it is claimed that the Earth would have been just as hot, whatever that means. However, this model rather rejects most of the underlying theory that produces such projection and indeed indicates that steady progression of main sequence stars from cool red to blue white might actually be greatly oversimplified, if valid at all. It would seem that the Sun has cooled massively over extended periods during the Cryogenian and the during the Carboniferous.
The biggest problem with understanding these mechanism is likely to be due to the validity of the temperature model that depends on the ratios of Oxygen-18 to Oxygen-16 which is likely to be as confused as the understanding of the ratios of Carbon-13 to Carbon-12.
It would seem that lower O18/O16 ratio has been entirely misinterpreted, as O17 and O18 would be produced from O16 by Cosmic Rays in the much the same way that C13 and C14 would be produced from C12. But the former could not be understood as the latter has been misunderstood anyway. Lower Ratios of O18 to O16 simply indicated that the Sun’s Fusions processes were suppressed during preceding periods.
At the same time, such observations call into question the Theia narrative of the Moon which is primarily based on the similarities on the same Oxygen-18 to Oxygen-16 ratio, which now apparently do not in any case match as closely as previously assumed.
It now seems to make more sense that the Moon actually arrived in the aftermath of the capture of Jupiter and is in fact associated with destruction of a Planet in zone of the Asteroid belt which was probably disrupted due to Tidal Forces from Jupiter. Indeed, the capture of the Moon must now be a prime candidate for explaining the End of Triassic Extinction and the associated cooling, along with the huge increases in Volcanic activity.
The huge cratering on the Moon would of course be associated with debris from the Asteroid Belt that also made its way into Earth’s orbit. Any likeness in the O-18 to O-16 ratios are most likely explained by the fact the Moon derived from a Planet that was being subjected to not greatly dissimilar patterns of radiation to that of the Earth.
Returning to the more central issues of the formation of the Atmosphere and the Oceans in the Archean Period, it noted that the original composition of Earth’s atmosphere is deemed by conventional theory to be, mostly Carbon Dioxide, with a lesser amounts of Methane and Ammonia, which would make it similar to Venus.
However, it is obvious that much Carbon Dioxide derives from Volcanic Activity, which seemingly substantially accounts for its dominance in the atmosphere of Venus. It is, however, postulated that Earth’s early atmosphere more closely resembled Jupiter. It is interesting to note that ratios of N15 to N14 are a third lower in the Jovian atmosphere which could in part be explained by the postulated formation of N15 by Cosmic Rays, which would be more intense on Earth.
It seems that Earth’s largely Nitrogen atmosphere can only be accounted for from its original Ammonia content, whilst the bulk of the Hydrogen in the Atmosphere could only come from Methane, both of which are considered primordial.
It is considered that Ammonia must reduce Carbon Dioxide to produce Water, but that this almost certainly occurred through a process that involved microbiological activity. The hypothesis is that relatively mild first glaciation of the Archean Era occurred initially with the condensation of a small amount of primordial water, which allowed the first microbes to come into being from complex chemical substances around chemical vents.
As the first Planet capture, caused the Earth progressively to cool, it is envisaged that these very hardy microprobes started to reduce a condensing mixture of Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia. It would seem their objective was primarily to form Proteins by combining Ammonia with the Carbon Dioxide, but that Water was evolved as a bi-product, so the Oceans therefore started to form from the atmosphere.
It would seem that Venus had sufficient Ammonia for this to process to initiate and indeed it is likely that it did. Whilst the mass of the Venus atmosphere is 93x that of Earth, Nitrogen makes up about 3.5%, so it would still have about 2.5 times as much Nitrogen as Earth, indicating that it started with much more Ammonia than Earth. The problem is that there is no evidence of Water.
The obvious conclusion is that most of the Water, which is a much lighter molecule will have been released into Space, as the Gravity of Venus would appear to be inadequate to retain, it unlike Earth. Of course, the issue here is that whilst Water has a molecular mass of 18, Ammonia only has one of 17, whilst Methane is just 16. A
t the same time, the composition of Jupiter is just 0.3% Methane and 0.026% Ammonia, but because Jupiter is 300 times heavier. This would indicate that the mass of its Ammonia is 7.8 times the Mass of the Earth.
The logical conclusion is that Minor Planets originally resembled the Major Planets much more closely but are indeed just the residual rocky cores plus the denser elements of the atmosphere which have not been stripped away due to proximity to the Sun.
The conclusion must therefore be that liquid Water was formed from Earth’s atmosphere before the lighter elements of its atmosphere were stripped away. It would therefore seem that estimates for the formation of the Moon around 4.5 million years ago may actually relate more accurately to the capture of Earth by the Sun, which is likely to be older than currently assumed.
It would seem that the stripping of Hydrogen and Helium from Earth Atmosphere would have occurred during the Cryogenian as Saturn’s high elliptical orbit caused periodic reduction in Earth’s Gravity which would have been massively greater initially due to thick atmosphere of Hydrogen and Helium.
It seems that Earth’s initial mass would have been about 38 times its current mass, and that the initiation of life requires huge pressure. It is possible that the earlies glaciation actually relates to the Earth own capture.
It also seems clear that in general that Planets being capture have become progressively more massive, but this seems to be largely a consequence of collecting much more Helium and Hydrogen from interstellar space over longer periods.
It would seem that in the case of Venus, it converted it Ammonia to Water but it has subsequently lost its Water. This is confirmed by the ratio of higher-mass Deuterium to lower-mass Hydrogen in the atmosphere being 100 times than the rest of the solar system.
It is clear that for this conversion to happen in the first place that the lighter Ammonia must have converted on Venus prior to being in a state where it would have been lost into Space. Of course, that makes Venus a potential source of Heavy Water.
The currently accepted theory suggests that the lack of Magnetic Field causes Water Vapour to be disassociated causing the Hydrogen to be lost, but this belies the fact that there is no free Oxygen either. It seems, however, that retention of Deuterium Oxide relates to the fact that unlike water it is not diamagnetic, which itself might be a clue to the economic production of Deuterium.
However, that would seem to make the case even stronger that Water loss is due lack of a magnetic field. The consequence appears to be that Methane which is not only lighter than Water, but also diamagnetic would also be lost from the atmosphere at least from the moment that the Magnetic Field of the Planet was lost, which is phenomenon that conventional theory cannot satisfactorily explain.
On Earth, the Great Oxygenation Event trigger by the capture of Neptune occurred approximately 2.4 to 2.1 billion years ago during the Paleoproterozoic Era. Cyanobacteria producing the Oxygen changed Earth’s atmosphere to an oxidizing from a weakly reducing atmosphere.
This resulted in the extinction of much life on Earth to go extinct and the subsequent development of multicellular organisms. Oxygen production then appears to have gone into full swing through the conversion of Methane during the Cryogenian Ice House which was trigger by the capture of Saturn.
It is not clear whether the Microbes that converted Ammonia originated on Earth or whether there was cross contamination between the Planets. It is, however, clear that initial glaciation is likely to have involved Ammonia which freezes at about -78 degrees centigrade.
Coincidentally, Carbon Dioxide has a very similar freezing point whereas it boils at minus 57 degrees Centigrade. The plateau in the Oxygenation between Ice Houses shows that Ammonia was exhausted but only produced 10-20% of the Oxygen that exists today, and by inference only a similar amount of Water.
It is also clear that the Huronian Glaciation involved substantial amounts of frozen Ammonia and Methane. The Cryogenian Ice House seems to involve a huge amount of Carbon Dioxide when the Snowball effect occurred, but also it is clear that during this period Oxygenation was in full swing.
The Oxygenation peaks around the time of the Permian and the End of Triassic Extinctions, indeed the surge in Oxygen production is particularly strong during the Permian, which again reinforces the notion that the arrival of Jupiter caused extreme Volcanic activity which now seems to be coincident with actual Ice Houses, which might seem a little counter intuitive but seems to echo with the Dust correlations with CO2 and temperature in the Vostok Ice Cores.
The tends to suggest that during the Cryogenian and Permian that either much of the glaciation was Dry Ice or that Water based snow was being precipitated from the Atmosphere after reduction of the Carbon Dioxide by Methane. The inference is that Carbon Dioxide from Volcanoes was reacting at high temperature with Methane before reacting and precipitating out Water. The actual chemical reactions are close to those of dry reforming of Carbon Dioxide to produce Synthesis Gas:
CO2 + CH4 → 2 H2 + 2 CO
The Hydrogen that is produced then reacts with the Carbon Dioxide to form Water and Carbon Monoxide:
CO2 + H2 → H2O + CO
These reactions do not appear to require a biological catalyst but rather occur in the hot zone over the vents of Volcanoes whilst being catalysed by their emissions.
Whilst, the details of the above theory may be subject to minor modification after scientific research has been redirected in a more productive direction, it is abundantly clear from the Geological Record that Earth’s ecosystem does indeed have in built mechanisms that are capable of recycling not only Carbon Dioxide but also Methane. Volcanic activity, which is not entirely missing even if currently subdue, is apparently more than capable of converting Methane and Carbon Dioxide into Water and Oxygen.
Whilst there seems to be no academic consensus on the way that Time should plotted, i.e. left to right or right to left, it is clear that not only do so-called Greenhouse Gas levels rise precipitously at the end of Ice Ages with Methane Level rising significantly faster than Carbon Dioxide.
The obvious question is whether the release of such gases which are supposedly derive primarily from the Ocean Floor and the Arctic Tundra are driving Global Warming or simply a consequence. It seems clear that there is little Methane produced from Volcanoes, so it would be unrealistic to attribute the emission of so-called greenhouse gases from Volcanoes as causative to the ending of Ice-Ages.
The lack of Methane also ties in well with the hypothesis of the production of Synthesis Gas because it should be expected to convert to Water Vapour, which is probably why Water is the most abundant of the Volcanic Gases. It also seems unrealistic to assume that the release of Methane from tundra to be the cause of the melting of the ice-sheets.
The other problem is that if the geothermal emissions are responsible for this precipitous global warming then a coherent explanation of the periodicity of the Quaternary Ice Ages is required, and that seems like a very tall order. It therefore seems clear that the rise in so-called greenhouse gases is a consequence of the rise in temperature rather than its cause.
It then become obvious that the main explanation of rising Greenhouse Gases has been ignored and which is that stored in the bulk of the Oceans themselves. It is clear that in pure water the solubility of such gases halves as temperature rises from melting Zero to 20 degrees centigrade.
The issue is of course highly complicated because the temperatures of the ocean vary enormously with latitude and depth, and dynamically due to currents and seasons. The solubility of the water will also be a function of pressure, with solubility dropping with increasing pressure as it does with increasing temperature. On top of this, it is all affected by the chemical composition of other solutes which effectively compete.
There appears to be strong correlation between major Orogeny and the main Ice Houses.
The Cryogen is characterised by the Grenville and Pan-African Orogeny. Grenville orogenic crust of mid-late Mesoproterozoic age (c. 1250–980 Ma) is found worldwide, but generally only events which occurred on the southern and eastern margins of Laurentia are recognized under the “Grenville” name.
The Pan-African orogeny was a series of major Neoproterozoic orogenic events which related to the formation of the supercontinents Gondwana and Pannotia about 600 million years ago.
The Permian is most clearly associated with Uralian, Hunter-Bowen and Sonoma Orogeny. The Uralian Orogeny refers to the long series of linear deformation and mountain building events that raised the Ural Mountains, starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, c. 323–299 and 299–251 million years ago respectively, and ending with the last series of continental collisions in Triassic to early Jurassic times.
The Hunter-Bowen Orogeny was a significant arc accretion event in the Permian and Triassic periods affecting approximately 2,500 km of the Australian continental margin, whilst the Sonoma orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America.
In the Industrial Era, whilst the Major Planets are simultaneously in Aphelion, Sunspot activity decays to very low levels due to an increase in Gravity within the Sun, which prevents breakout from the magnetic containment within the star.
This results in something of a paradox, because during these periods, the surface of the Sun cools, but this is only because heat is being contained more effectively within the interior. The fusion rate is considered to accelerate as a consequence of greater gravitational pressure and reduced perturbance, but the thermal lag does not make such warming apparent within the cycle, but this only pertains for as long as the perturbative gravitational influence of the Gas Planets is minimal and balanced.
When such influence become maximal and imbalanced then breakout occurs from the magnetic bottle and the surface of the Sun heats up very quickly as the Sunspot activity peaks. The very short revolutionary periods of Jupiter make the pulse of such fluctuations very regular even if their amplitude is highly erratic.
For medium-term maxima and minima is not physical alignment but temporal alignment that is required. It matters not where the Perihelion are when they synchronize, it just matters that they are temporally synchronised, such that gravitational effect on the Sun’s Newtonian Gravity synchronises.
However, to get a full-blown Ice-Age, it seems that Physical Alignment is the key and that Temporal Alignment is only providing the kind of minor variations that produce the Medieval Maximum and the Maunder Minimum.
For Medium Term tracking of Global Climate Change concentrations of Carbon-14 have been measured. However, there are two distinct variables to consider. The first is whether the extra Carbon-14 is simply due to increases in Carbon Dioxide concentrations.
This ultimately depends on whether Carbon-14 derives from Carbon-13 which is produced from Carbon-12 or whether like conventional theory suggests, it is produce from Nitrogen-14. If the latter is true, then correlation with Solar Activity is much more direct than if it there is a simultaneous increase in Carbon Dioxide Levels.
If Carbon-14 does derive from Nitrogen-14 which seems increasingly unlikely, then it is not Temperature that is being measured but rather the flux of Solar Wind. This immediately reduces any climatic effect to simply the flux of the Solar Wind. This would be incontrovertible proof that the Climate Change is directly related to longer-term fluctuations in Solar Activity and have absolutely nothing to do with human activity.
Accepting, however, that as previously described under Double Electron and Beta Decay that, in total contradiction to the claims of mainstream Particle Physicists, Carbon-14 derives from interaction of Cosmic Rays with Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere, then a correlation between Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-14 is established.
This then also forces the understanding that Oxygen-18 to Oxygen-16 ratio, like Carbon-13 to Carbon-12 ratio correlates directly to intensities of Solar Radiation. However, this correlation is not per se a direct correlation with Temperature which did not really exist as a Scientific quantity until Fahrenheit in 1709. Global temperature records only date from about 1850.
Everything prior to this date is estimated from what can now be seen to be flawed correlations. Whilst such considerations of themselves do not actually kill the Anthropological Climate Change arguments stone dead, they do show an appalling lack of academic rigour, which means that every single claim that has been made to date need to re-scrutinized with great rigour.
The next issue is whether Temperature, which should correctly be defined as Spatial Curvature, is determined at Earth’s Surface primarily by Radiation Intensity or Gravitation. The assumption in the Physics community has always been that it is Radiation Intensity that defines temperature, but this cannot ever be completely true.
It is abundant clear that during the Snowball Earth of the Cryogenian that nearly all Photons would have been reflected back into Space. Of course, it is then easy to explain why it would have been cold, but it cannot really explain why it would ever have got hotter again. It is clear, however, that there would have been a clear disconnect between Temperature and Radiation.
This theory which is based on a fundamental analysis of Quantum Mechanics then takes things even further. It postulates that the Photons can only be absorbed if the Spatial Curvature of the Valence Electron matches the frequency of the Photon, which itself relates to the Spatial Curvature of the emitting Electron.
If the Spatial Curvature of a Valence Electron with an embedded Photon is incompatible with the Energy of an Electron in such an excited state, then it will emit the Photon. This inherently means that absorption and emission of Electron is the effect rather than the underlying cause which is Gravity. It is therefore irrational to consider that Global Temperature is driven by Radiation.
It must instead be assumed that is determined by the gravitational reference which is in effect being reduced by the elliptical orbits of the Major Planets. So not only are Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus lowering the Fusion Rate in the Sun which then reduces it radiation output, but they are directly lowering the Temperature of Earth which is globally independent of the incidence of such radiation. This alone means that the Greenhouse Gas Theory is completely broken.
Quantum Mechanics, and even Classical Mechanics gives much more cause to reject Greenhouse Gas Theory, but before conducting further analysis the discussion of historical temperatures will conclude with the data gain from the Carbon-14 records and how these relate to Vostok Ice Cores.
Periodic Minima such as the Maunder Minima have been analysed many times before, but the focus on the Minima seems to be a red-herring. Evidence from the Vostok Ice Station Cores indicates and abrupt rise in temperature every 100,000 year cycle (now assumed to be 97,380 years) followed by a steady decline that seems to be interrupted with intermediate events.
It is now hypothesised that the abrupt rise relates to enhanced containment of Fusion whose rate increases dramatically as the gravitational reference increases, but this eventually breaks down resulting in an equilibrium in temperature with the radiating surface, which then results in decay of the Black Body Radiation.
This is characterised by a slow decline which represent an exponential decay of the surface temperature which tails off but with some often quite significant reversal as other gravitational harmonics between the resonances come into play.
It needs to be understood that these cycles do not really relate to the Physical positions of the Planets themselves but rather the Precessions of the Perihelions. It must be understood that even the sharp-peaks are relatively long-terms events and that impact on Fusion Rate arises from repeated erosion by literally hundreds of passes a Perihelion rather than the more direct effect of individual orbital periods, which are reflected in the short-term Sunspot cycles and the medium-term Carbon-14 records.
It can be seen that very hot periods leading up to 2020 relates to a period of very low Sunspot activity, which suggest very little disruption to Fusion containment. This is associated with Jupiter being at Aphelion at the end of 2016. Uranus was at Aphelion in 2008, whilst Saturn was at Aphelion in 2018.
This all points to a minimum in Sunspot activity in 2018 and a reduced radiation from the Sun. However, the Global Temperature and the measurements of so-called Greenhouse Gases peaked during this period, which apparently breaks the link with Sunspots, which is very confusing. But the answer lies in the fact that it is Gravity that is driving Earth’s temperature and that is maximum when the Planets are grouped near the Aphelion, and is not actually directly related to Radiation, which in the short-term analysis disconnects with Gravitational Reference, thus proving that Radiation is not the driving cause but a correlated observed effect.
The Medium-Term Cycles that are picked up in the Carbon-14 Record are assumed to be harmonic disruptions to Earth’s own elliptical orbit which is deemed to be subject to variation due to the perturbances by the Major Planets.
It is considered that the Earth’s own gravitational reference is being influenced on a cycle that appears to relate to the Resonances of the Major Planets. The dominant cycle which relates to Uranus appears to be 84.01^2/29.46 =240 years with an intermittent but weaker reversal every 120 years. However, there does seem to have been a very clear disruption to this pattern not only in the Modern Maxima but also the Medieval Maxima and the Maunder Minima.
These cycles do not rely heavily on the eccentricities of the Major Planets. It therefore seems as though Neptune is chiming in on being out of phase approximately every 480 years whilst enforcing the effect every 960 years, but because there is no absolute synchronisation, the effect is a little messy. However, it does seem that both Maunder Minimum and the Modern Maxima are a consequence of the effect that Neptune has on the eccentricity of both Saturn and Uranus.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that because Carbon-14 is varying in response to the Sun’s radiation, which is only responding to the gravitational signals and as previously discussed tends not to be synchronized for shorter-term cycles. The Carbon-14 Record should therefore be indicative rather than definitive and given less credence than qualitative historical records.
The opposition of Neptune in 2020 is considered highly indicative that the current cycle of warming is ending, and the Vostok Ice Cores also signal that it is coincident with the long-term cycles. It would appear that the not only are the Aphelions of the Major Planets temporally aligned but their Precessions are also physically aligned, marking the beginning of the next major cooling cycle.
One of the most troubling observations that was hard to square with theory was the fact that Venus is actually hotter than Mercury, and that initially appeared to make no sense at all. But actually, not only does it make perfect sense, it actually underscores this theory.
The explanation is that it is not only the Sun’s variable gravity that makes planets hotter. Of course, their own inherent gravity plays a significant role. Surface Temperature relates to Spatial Curvature and hence Surface Gravity. Mercury is cooler than Venus because it smaller, and its Surface Gravity is 41.7% that of Venus, so consequently its Temperature in Kelvin is only 59.7%. The discrepancy should of course be accounted for due to its greater proximity to the Sun which actually seems to be a secondary effect.
However, not withstanding all the arguments assembled above, the single biggest is objection to the Greenhouse Gas Theory and the ridiculous assertion made in regard to Anthropological Global Warming is the absurd hypothesis that Atmosphere can behave as a Greenhouse in the first place. Whilst the fact that Carbon Dioxide and Methane cannot act as physical barriers to convention is obvious, the understanding of why the containment of Photons is impossible is best explained through Quantum Mechanics.
If one considers Bremsstrahlung, which is itself a bit of misconception because acceleration is rather meaningless concept in context of Quantum Mechanics, then Greenhouse Gas doctrine just falls apart. Bremsstrahlung Photons are obviously emitted to ensure conservation of Momentum which is derives from Newtonian Mechanics and is still substantially valid in Quantum Mechanics.
In effect, it means that any Molecule that has gained an upward momentum due to absorbing an upward Photon cannot then lose the Kinetic Energy gained by doing anything other than emitting a similar Photon in the upward direction. Consequently, if the Greenhouse Gas Theory is taken to its absurd conclusion, then all so-called Greenhouse Gases would be expelled into Space.
This could be explained far more eloquently in terms of the Photons being radiated according to the Curvature of Space as described under The Mechanics of Quanta, but this is really quite unnecessary because if Climatologist had even a basic understanding of Classical Mechanics, they would understand that their Greenhouse Gas Theory does not withstand even basic scrutiny.
The sheer paucity of the logical analysis relating to this theory is so extreme that it almost defies the imagination that such incompetent musing could ever have passed through meaningful peer review to be accepted by professional Physicists. Of course, Science is based on the testing of hypotheses, so it is suggested that efficacity of the Greenhouse Gas effect is tested overnight in cloudless conditions. It should soon be obvious to any High School Physics student that the Carbon Dioxide cannot even prevent surface cooling overnight.
The explanation of how Water Vapour and other Greenhouse Gases delay cooling is that there is a delay in the emission of absorbed Photons. Water Vapour is inherently lighter than either diatomic Nitrogen or Oxygen and therefore rises in the atmosphere.
But as it rises, it cools eventually condensing into water droplets that fall as rain. It would seem that the condensation event is related to the emission of the embedded Photon, which conserves momentum by radiating in the same direction as the Photon which it absorbed. The condensation relates to a drop in Pressure, which equates to Temperature or most fundamentally Spatial Curvature.
The emission of the Photon results in a recompression of the Aether and a transition to the Liquid State. The Water then falls from the Atmosphere as rain causing cooling of the ground. The short-term cycle is complete and the temporary delay to the radiation of heat is over.
With Carbon Dioxide is heavier than air, so it will tend to release an embedded Photon relatively quickly and fall back to Earth. The time that it retains the Photon is relatively short so its ability to retain Energy is limited. Methane is lighter than air, but it equally does not condense into a liquid within the atmosphere, so it is much more effective in retaining radiation from the Earth’s surface.
It is mostly concentrated in the Stratosphere around the Equator but also asymmetrically to the Northern Hemisphere due to the fact that it diamagnetic and the fact the Earth field is much more concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Oddly, perhaps the distribution at the surface whilst much lower is concentrated more towards the poles with odd hot spots that appear to have little to do with industrialization but are more closely correlated with mountain ranges.
It would seem that the of eclipsing of the Ultraviolet Light coincides with the altitude where Methane accumulates. It is hypothesised that Methane like Water Vapour absorbs Ultraviolet Light C by Ionization, which liberates Protons. In the case of Methane, it is assumed that it forms Methyl groups whilst the Protonation of Water produces Hydronium.
It is considered that some of the Methyl groups combine with each other, whilst others will be combined with the Hydronium to form Ethane. Ethane can then be ionized in a similar manner to produce Ethanol. Methanol is produced directly from Methyl Ions. Both Methanol and Ethanol concentrations have been shown to increasing exponentially from Ice Cores in Greenland.
It therefore clear that that this pathway provides a natural means for Methane to be recycled, whilst a change of state causes a cooling effect. It seems from other published data that the degradation period of Methane is about 12 years, but concentrations are seasonal confirming that it depends on Solar Radiation.
One obvious observation is that any warming effect that pertains to Carbon Dioxide and Methane is actually more due to the rate of increase than to their absolute levels. A steady state would seem to result in energy being recycled uniformly with no clear warming effect. Moreover, elimination of emissions should result in an immediate cooling. Equally, it must be considered that as the Sun cools this mechanism acts as temperature mediator as its influence on temperature is always opposite to the prevailing trend.
A further conclusion to draw from the discussion is that the use of both C14/C12 and O18/O16 ratio to determine the temperature history of the Earth strongly supports the previously theorized Dumbbell Model of the Atom, which in turn depends on Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. None of this is reasonably explicable through the Bohr Model of the atom or any of its derivatives including Schrodinger.
In terms, of the future prognosis of the Earth, it is clear that Climatology needs to be firmly anchored in Quantum Mechanics rather than the whimsical ideas of autodidacts that have now been shown to have got this all so badly wrong, noting that Quantum Physicists have to date also got most things so badly wrong that they are actually to blame. In term of intervention, it is really a question of being careful what we wish for before the future of the Earth in the medium term would seem to be point towards progressively more severe ice ages rather than a return to the Jurassic.
Read more at www.quora.com
About the author: , B.Sc Civil Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford (1981)
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