How It Works
Written by Herb Rose
Radioactivity is where atoms with unstable nuclei emit particles forming more stable atoms. An atom can emit neutron molecules and helium nuclei, or by dividing or emitting an electron, they can form more stable atoms of different elements.
The ejection of a neutron molecule (hydrogen atom), alpha particle (helium atom), and the splitting of the atom into smaller elements are understandable since the repelling force of the positive charges of the protons in the nucleus would try to split the nucleus.
How the nucleus emits a beta particle, electron, makes no sense at all. The electron in the nucleus would act as binding force between the protons and should make the nucleus more stable. Yet somehow a neutron molecule is being split into a proton and an electron, and then the electron, even though with more protons the new nucleus would have a stronger attraction to the electron, is ejected from the atom with considerable energy.
The resulting nucleus, even though it has lost the binding force of the electron, is more stable and because the increase in the repelling force between the protons, the force holding the new atom’s nucleus together has increased even after losing some of the binding force. How is this possible and why doesn’t a nucleus ever do the most obvious stabilizing action of expelling a proton? Instead it emits an alpha particle made up of four protons and two electrons.
It would take a lot of energy to split a neutron molecule, eject an electron, and then increase the strength of the force holding the nucleus together. The rate of radioactivity is not affected by external conditions and the reaction is spontaneous so the energy must come from the nucleus of the atom. Since the radioactive decay releases energy with the beta particle and increases the energy holding the nucleus together how does this reaction occur and what is providing the energy to cause it?
A possible solution is that the nucleus is not being held together by a binding force (strong and weak nuclear forces), but a compressing force pushing the nucleus together. Since there is no force of gravity the only two forces, other than the nuclear forces, are the force of matter (electrical force which is trying to split the nucleus), and the force of energy. It must be energy that is compressing the nucleus and holding it together.
If energy was attracted to positive mater and repelled negative matter and the force of energy was stronger than the force of matter (probably by a factor of psi, the universal constant) then the compression force of energy would try to displace any exposed electron on the surface of the nucleus. As long as the surface of the nucleus was covered with protons and its electrons were shielded from the energy it would be stable. The alpha particle is stable because it has two electrons surrounded by four protons, in a tetrahedron shape, protecting the electrons from the force of energy. If an atom had too many electrons in the nucleus the force of energy could act on any exposed electron causing it to decay. If the atom had too few electrons in its nucleus the repelling force between the protons would make the nucleus unstable causing it to decay.
This action of energy would explain why, when a neutron is not within the nucleus of an atom (where it can exist for billions of years) it splits into a proton and electron within twenty minutes releasing a gamma ray. Energy is attacking the molecule displacing the electron and surrounding the proton preventing the electron from re-attaching to it.
If the binding force of an atom’s nucleus is really a compression force of energy being attracted to positive matter and repelling negative matter it would mean the sun is burning backwards. The sun starts as a mass of matter in the form of neutrons. Energy is attracted to the sun by the positive electrical field emitted by the protons and tries to displace the negative matter. Energy basically mines the surface of the sun, dislodging pieces that are then further broken down until stable nuclei are formed. This secondary refining may explain why the sun’s corona is hotter than the surface of the sun.
Hydrogen and helium are not the fuel that causes the sun to burn, they, and other stable atoms, are the ashes of energy combining with matter to form atoms. When the ash level gets too high, the energy sheds the ashes, propelling them into space where they form the planets and other objects surrounding the sun. All the matter in our solar system comes from the sun shedding ash during its life cycle.
This is far more reasonable than nuclear fusion causing the sun to burn. Destroying an atom by splitting the nucleus and creating an atom by fusing two smaller nuclei into a larger atom cannot both produce energy. This would violate the conservation of energy.
Using the theory of fusion the heaviest element the sun could produce from the combining of various atoms is iron. The amount of the different elements occurring in the solar system and the number of simultaneous reaction needed to form the larger elements makes this improbable. In order for elements heavier than iron to exist they must be recycled by suns after a sun has exploded and distributed its matter into space. For some elements this recycling must occur five times.
If you were to make a model of the solar system where the size of the solar system (to the edge of the outer Ort belt) was shrunk to the size of the Earth, you would need less than two hundred grams of matter to make the model. If the matter was all on the surface of the sphere, the Earth’s size would represent three light days.
When this sphere exploded, propelling the matter into space, (making an incorrect assumption that none of the matter was left in the volume of the sphere) the size of the sphere would grow to three light years (diluting the two hundred grams of matter by a factor of over one hundred thirty three thousand times) before it encountered the nearest star system. The amount of atoms striking the nearest solar system would be minimal.
Scientist do not think that the tons of elements heavier than iron in our solar system came from close stars exploding but stars hundreds and thousands of light years away. Someone, with more math skills than I possess, can figure out how far away an exploding star could have to be from our solar system in order to transfer a single gram of iron, to our solar system.
Now repeat the process five times using the life span of a star and multiply the time by the number of grams of the elements heavier than iron that exist in our solar system and you get the result that it could not possibly occur in the time the universe is thought to have existed.
By having energy being attracted to positive matter and repelling negative matter we can explain how atoms can emit beta particles from their nuclei, why a neutron molecule decays, and why the sun produces the elements that make up the solar system.
Also, by eliminating the nuclear forces and nuclear fusion, the theory produces a reaction that makes the laws of physics constant no matter what the size. It is the same force that causes a neutron molecule to split, a radioactive atom to decay, and the sun to burn.