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Giant Arctic Craters Likely Caused By Climate-Altering Supervolcanoes

Written by James Edward Kamis

 

Figure 1.) Rendition of a Supervolcanic Eruption (Image Credit: MARK GARLICK/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRA/Getty Images/Science Photo Libra, see here)

For many years an impassioned debate has been waged between those who believe these Arctic craters are astronomical in origin with those favoring a volcanic eruption origin.

A 2,000-mile-long linear chain of giant craters located in the Arctic is the likely result of multiple climate-altering supervolcanic eruptions associated with the movement of the North American continent across an underlying non-moving deep earth lower mantle superplume, not random meteor impact strikes.

The recent discovery by the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) of two giant craters beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet that is positioned along the Arctic crater trend has pushed this debate back into the spotlight. NASA has stated in no uncertain terms that these two new craters are of astronomical origin.

However, NASA and those advocating an astronomical origin for this chain of giant Arctic craters have failed to include two extremely relevant and telling lines of evidence, the regional geological setting and the dynamics of supervolcanic eruptions.

Regional Geological Setting

A critical factor in determining the origin of giant crater features is to research, understand and then incorporate the Regional Geological Setting. Failure to do this, especially early on, leads to an investigation process that is too narrowly focused.

Limiting the investigation area to a very small geographical area when reviewing world-class-sized crater features, especially those that occur in groups, is an inherently bad idea. The result of this narrow focusing is to bias the search for which massive force or forces is behind the giant craters.

Specifically, biasing scientists to look upward into the vast expanse of outer space rather than looking laterally at regionally extensive geological features.

So, let’s review and then determine the relevance of the regional geological setting associated with the 2,000-mile-long linear chain of giant Arctic craters.

Several observations are extremely telling. First, as per Figure 2, the giant Arctic craters are positioned along with a linear trend which is unusual because meteor Impacts are distributed randomly across the earth and not aligned along with trends.

Figure 2.) A 2,000-mile-long chain of Arctic crater features (red circles) defined by geological, topographic, and research study evidence. Craters are positioned above a major fault shown as a thick black dashed line. (map credit Google Earth, fault line credit and labeling credit J. Kamis).

The trend coincides with the surface trace of a well-mapped major deep-inner earth-reaching fault system (see here).

Major fault trends often act to provide an open pathway for deep inner earth hot lava/magma to explode upward and onto the Earth’s surface. Current information indicates that the Arctic crater features are progressively younger in age to the northeast.

Secondly, major fault trends can tap into extremely deep non-moving/fixed lava pockets (magma chambers) termed lower mantle superplumes.

When activated superplumes violently explode upward along the fault planes thereby periodically expulsing super-high pressure and massive volumes of magma upward and onto outer continental rock layers in the form of supervolcanic eruptions.

As outer continental rock layers move sideways, per continental drift, across the underlying and non-moving superplume, the process creates a long linear chain of supervolcanic eruptions that are progressively younger in one direction. This is exactly what is thought to have occurred with the Arctic craters.

This idea is strengthened by comparison to other analog regional geological settings. An excellent example is the Snake River Plain Volcanic region (see herehere and here).

A 450-mile-long chain of large volcanic eruptions that are progressively younger to the northeast and ultimately terminate at the Yellowstone Supervolcanic Eruption Complex (Figure 3).

Figure 3.) Comparison of here contended to be a chain of Snake River Plain Super-Plume Hotspots which show up as circular collapsed volcanoes (Calderas) with the chain of giant Arctic craters. (credit image Google Earth and J. Kamis.)

The Snake Palin is expressed at the surface by a topographic low which is the result of downward movement along with major deep-earth-reaching fault zone.

Next, NASA researchers and others have confirmed the effects of an ancient mantle plume that affected various locations along a 1,500-mile stretch from northern Greenland to Iceland. Iceland sits atop the current position of the mantle plume (see here).

Relic bedrock heat flow from this ancient mantle plume is still anomalously high and thereby acting to bottom melt a huge swath of Greenland’s glacial ice sheet.

As a side note, the author has identified three additional giant craters associated with the giant Arctic trend (see Appendix 1). They are not included in this discussion because they are speculative/unproven, however well worth further investigation.

Dynamics of supervolcanic eruptions

The dynamics of supervolcanic eruptions is not well understood, however, recent research has shed light on how these monster volcanoes operate as follows:

  • Eruptions are located above major fault systems that tap down into the earth’s mantle or more likely lower mantle. These types of faults have non-complex plumbing systems (large open vertical pathways) that allow expulsed lava to rise upward at very high speeds.
  • Eruptions occur periodically as high pressure in the deep lava pockets exceeds the capability of the vertical fault system to keep the lava chamber from exploding upward.
  • High-pressure pulses are the result of the rapid warming of water present in the hot lava and not a movement of the lava pocket. Explosive release of huge lava pockets can occur in an extremely short time frame, as little as 48 hours!
  • For a more detailed explanation, the reader is directed herehere and here.

The dynamics of supervolcanic eruptions also affects the development of minerals within the hot lava mixture.

For many years the presence of the rare metal iridium in rock layers surrounding Earth’s giant crater features was considered by many scientists as strong proof and some said absolute proof, that the crater was of meteor impact origin.

This was based on the then thought to be 100% settled scientific fact that Iridium is common in meteors but extremely rare in earth’s outer crust rock layers.

Therefore, finding significant concentrations of iridium in rock layers that form the circular rim of Earth’s giant crater features must be considered as strong proof of a meteor impact origin.

This supposed scientific fact has since been proven to be incorrect, primarily because significant concentrations of Iridium have been discovered in one of the largest outflows of molten lava on earth, the Deccan Traps.

This huge geographically extensive geological feature is not a crater and is now thought to be one of the primary and some say the root cause of the Great Dinosaur Extinction Event (Gerta Keller Princeton University and here).

The Deccan Traps lava flows were sourced by an underlying major fault break (see here and here) extending downward into Earth’s iridium rich mantle.

It is now accepted that the presence of Iridium in crater rocks is not absolute proof of a meteor impact origin, rather proof of a meteor impact or supervolcanic eruption (see here).

As was true with Iridium, for many years the presence of the rare mineral termed Shock Quartz in rock layers surrounding earth’s giant crater features was considered by many scientists as strong proof, and some said absolute proof, that the crater was of meteor impact origin.

New research has shown that shock quartz can theoretically be generated by supervolcanic eruptions as has recently been proven to be the case with the transformation of carbon to diamonds (see here and quote below).

“These findings contradict recent molecular dynamics simulation results for the shock-induced graphite-to-diamond transformation and provide a benchmark for future theoretical simulations. Additionally, our results show that an earlier report of HD forming above 170 GPa for shocked pyrolytic graphite may lead to incorrect interpretations of meteor impact events…The coupling of planar impact experiments and synchrotron XRD measurements has provided real-time, in situ structural information on the shock-induced graphite-to-diamond transformation. Shock-compressed pyrolytic graphite transforms to HD at a much lower stress than previously reported (35) and without CD formation. In addition to graphite, other shock-compressed minerals (for example, quartz) that transform to high-pressure structures are also used as markers for meteorite impacts (44). Thus, experimental results—similar to those presented here for the graphite-to-diamond transformation—can greatly benefit studies of shock metamorphism in other minerals.” (see here)

Shock Quartz is generated by an almost instantaneous pulse of super-high pressure onto relatively low-temperature, silica-rich molten lava/magma which is here contended to be the case with violent supervolcanic eruptions fed by magma from lower Mantle superplumes.

Other Evidence

The Nastapoka Arc (Figure 2) which is one of the larger crater-like features in the Arctic and has been research-proven to be absent of Iridium and Shock Quartz. This throws into question the consensus scientific theory that this crater and other craters along this trend are 100% proven to be of astronomical origin.

Regional geological mapping also shows that this arc is likely not of meteor impact origin because the arc is not circular feature, rather a distinct semi-circle sharply cut off by a major fault (see here).

Recent research studies have confirmed that all five Earth’s climate-altering mass extinctions are the result of massive world-class pulses of volcanism from land and ocean geological features including the previously thought to be Meteor Impact end of the dinosaurs.

These extinction events include the Ordovician (450 MYA), Devonian (370 MYA), Permian (252 MYA), Triassic (200 Mya), and K-Pg (dinosaur). The main take away from these volcanically induced mass extinctions is that until very recently many mass extinctions were still attributed to astronomical forces.

So, it is always a good idea to follow proper scientific methodology, keep an open mind and evaluate new data. Theories can change even those thought to be 100% settled.

Numerous World-Class Rare Metallic Mineral Mines are located south of the chain of Arctic craters all associated with deep earth reaching major fault systems.

Fault systems that brought rare minerals to the surface likely from the Lower Mantle. This emphasizes the important and very active role of regional geological features in the Arctic craters area.

SUMMARY

Convincing, abundant and reliable evidence indicates that a long linear chain of giant crater features located in northeast Canada and northern Greenland are of supervolcanic and not astronomical in origin.

This includes the two recently discovered giant subglacial crater features located in northwest Greenland and three new giant crater features designated by the author (see Appendix 1).

In the past, the scientific community has in some cases narrowly focused their investigation of earth’s giant crater features in limited geographical regions, thereby not properly evaluating the significance of the regional geological setting.

In addition, they have not correctly interpreted the presence or absence of Iridium and Shock Quartz. Nor have they taken into consideration the growing amount of evidence that supervolcanic eruptions are a different kind of beast.

It’s way past time for the consensus scientific community to inform the public that supervolcanic eruptions have in past acted to control much of Earth’s climate and have forced many anomalous climate-related events most notably mass extinctions.

In a broader sense, this is yet another example of how geological forces have an underappreciated, underestimated but significant influence on our planet’s climate as per the Plate Climatology Theory.

FOOTNOTE FROM AUTHOR:

This article is not intended to cast aspersions on NASA, other scientific organizations, or the dedicated high-skilled staff of scientists working for these organizations.

Rather it is intended to present a plausible alternative explanation of a long linear chain of giant climate-altering craters located in the Arctic.

Neither is this article intended to imply that all crater giant features are of supervolcanic origin.

However, the author strongly believes that it is critical to take into account the regional geological setting and the possible involvement of supervolcanic eruptions when attempting to determine the origin of the earth’s giant crater features.


James Edward Kamis is a retired professional Geologist with 42 years of experience, a B.S. in Geology from Northern Illinois University (1973), an M.S. in geology from Idaho State University (1977), and a longtime member of AAPG who has always been fascinated by the connection between Geology and Climate. More than 42 years of research/observation have convinced him that Geological forces, especially Earth’s Upper Mantle Convection Systems which drive the dynamics of outer crustal plates, are an important driver of the Earth’s climate as per his Plate Climatology Theory.

Read more at climatechangedispatch.com


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Comments (28)

  • Avatar

    Jerry

    |

    Climate science is in it’s absolute infancy and the complexity will only increase as we learn more about the numerous systems impacting it.

    We need data for dozens of systems far more than we need computer models that attempt predictions based on inadequate and manipulated temperature.data.

    Shame on the IPCC, CRU, NASA, NOAA and national meteorological agency worldwide for misrepresenting climate science.

    And yes I read the last paragraph.

    Reply

  • Avatar

    Andy Rowlands

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    Interesting ideas, as I’d been led to believe Iridium was not naturally found on Earth, and as it’s highest concentration is around the Chicxulub crater, that was taken as a strong indication that the impact was most likely the cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs. I’d read that as the impact and the eruption of the Deccan Traps occurred at approximately the same time, the impact may have set off the eruption, as they are at almost exactly opposite points on the globe, or it may have just been coincidence they happened at around the same time.

    Reply

  • Avatar

    Matt Holl

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    The method of multiple hypotheses was first developed by Chamberlin in 1890 [2], who believed that scientists usually ‘fall in love’ with their favourite hypothesis, leading to the unfortunate practice of trying to fit all evidence into a single explanation instead of finding genuine explanations for the phenomenon they study. The solution, according to Chamberlin, is to cultivate the habit of developing and comparing alternative hypotheses to explain any phenomenon observed. Platt pointed out that multiple hypothesis testing was responsible for the fast growth of molecular biology in the 1960s, demonstrating its utility for any field that seeks rapid scientific progress. Since then, multiple hypothesis testing has become a staple of graduate qualifying exams and is commonly extolled in methodological textbooks. Surprisingly, the method of multiple hypotheses is rarely used in ecology and evolution.

    The above is an extract from a Royal Society article by Gustavo S. Betini , Tal Avgar and John M. Fryxell.

    The Chicxulub crater is assessed at 180 km in diameter and 20 km depth. That crater is the third largest impact crater discovered on Earth according to whoever.

    Can the ratio of crater diameter to depth help identify whether a crater is of volcanic or astronomical origin. I would hazard a guess that a crater 20 km deep supports the rationale it is of astronomical impact origin.

    I read many scientific summaries that do not even acknowledge other contributing phenomena when assessing climate issues.

    Polar sea ice melt is an example. We are often told the world is ending and geothermal and oceanic current contributions are not even acknowledged.

    Knowledge is strength, ignorance is sickness. (Lao Tzu)

    Reply

    • Avatar

      jerry krause

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      Hi Matt,

      I went to the NASA link referenced by Kamas and found “”We’ve surveyed the Earth in many different ways, from land, air and space – it’s exciting that discoveries like these are still possible,” said Joe MacGregor, a glaciologist with NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, who participated in both findings.”

      Kamas made an indirect point (I beleve) when he wrote “The recent discovery by the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA)” introduce the link from which the above NASA quote was taken.

      My question for you and anyone else who cares to answer: What is the National Aeronautics and Space Agency doing by hiring a ‘glaciologist’?

      Have a good day, Jerry

      Reply

    • Avatar

      jerry krause

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      Hi Matt,

      And from the NASA article I copy and paste “a 19-mile-wide crater beneath Hiawatha Glacier – the first meteorite impact crater ever discovered under Earth’s ice sheets.” and “If the second crater, which has a width of over 22 miles”. No where have I found “a crater 20 km deep”.

      a team of researchers has achieved one of its main goals, with rocks brought up from 670 meters beneath the sea floor off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula (Science Magazine) So I have yet to find any reference any asteroid impact crater 20km deep, except yours by “whoever”.

      Have a good day, Jerry.

      Reply

      • Avatar

        Matt Holl

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        Hi Jerry.
        I do not know how to hyperlink which makes me the second to last dinosaur possibly.

        Google “chicxulub crater” and research doors and windows will open and a list of dimension parameters will pop up on the first open page.

        Then google “chicxulub crater gravity anomaly map” and you may take a double blink.

        Then google “gravity anomaly global map” and catch your breath.
        Whilst I have learnt a lot from you about such things as first principles and Galileo I am looking forward to purchasing a new lap top and learning to “hyperlink” on it.

        My attribution to “whoever is in reference to the term “That crater is the third largest impact crater discovered on Earth according to whoever.” as I had some reservations about that particular statement in reference and reverence to Mr Kamis observations.

        I hope Salem, Washington State, is peaceful on a Sunday morning.
        Kind Regards
        Matt

        Reply

        • Avatar

          Me Again

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          Hi Jerry.
          When you google “gravity anomaly global map” you will come across an oval, egg shaped global map totally covered in reds, yellows, blues and greens and if you expand that map you can clearly see the Chicxulub Crater but what is more fascinating is the crater fits perfectly into the Gulf of Mexico and one could ponder if the impact caused the Gulf of Mexico.
          The impact could have been a contributor to the wobble in the Earths Axis.
          Best you post me a reality check. (satire)
          Regards
          Matt

          Reply

          • Avatar

            jerry krause

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            Hi Matt,

            When you woite about the Gulf of Mexico you did not mention the most obvious historical fact. The unexplained disappearance of a quite developed ‘culture’ who suddenly became extinct. I cannot spell well and am to lazy to look up the name of extinct, but certainly studied, culture.

            And I doubt, but do not know, if Kamas (the geologist) would suggest this extinction was cause by a great volcanic eruption. I ‘guess’ because a non-geologist am not aware of other evidences of volcanic activity in the specific area of the Yucatan pennisula (sp?)

            How is this for a reality check?

            Have a good day, Jerry

          • Avatar

            Matt Holl

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            Hi Jerry
            Thank you for the reality check, the need of which being my preposterous observation the Chicxulub impact could have created the gulf of Mehico, but you seem to have some sympathy for such Earth Shattering thoughts.
            That impact was 66 million years ago so long before civilizations existed to be made extinct. You see, reality checks can work both ways.
            Have a great day
            .Matt

  • Avatar

    Robert Beatty

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    I wonder if any of these super volcanoes or astronomical impacts raised large volumes of sea water above 50oC?

    Reply

    • Avatar

      jerry krause

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      Hi Robert,

      He (Kamas) has described that localized sea water was near the temperature of boiling water along the coast of Antarctica.

      Have a good day, Jerry

      Reply

  • Avatar

    Michael Clarke

    |

    I am not an Expert, (Scientist) who knows a large amount about a specific subject.
    I am a Logician,
    An Expert when needing data outside of his field of expertise tend to rely upon theories proposed by other experts. Thus Houses of cards are constructed.
    A non expert when seeking information about which he has little knowledge goes searching for knowledge, the Houses of cards are thus revealed!
    Cosmic events cause Large Spikes, those spikes can cause large scale knock on effects but in as ond by themselves can only be triggers.
    Extinction events, and Ice ages take geological time to ensue. A trigger, a long term effect with some feedback system and eventual extinction or Ice Age. Without the feedback there is recovery.

    Reply

  • Avatar

    Zoe Phin

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    People can easily believe that hot springs and lava flows are produced from within the Earth.
    But tell them that Earth can deliever an average cozy 5 to 10°C to the the surface, and they start to have doubts!

    “No way, the sun does it all! No need for geothermal.”
    “No way, it’s GHGs that do that! No need for geothermal”

    Alarmists, Lukewarmists, and (most?) Slayers are all united in their geothermal denial.

    Reply

    • Avatar

      Geraint Hughes

      |

      THe other thing you need to be aware of is that the geothermal, can also cause icebergs to melt suddenly, even in winter. This is because there are a lot of underwater volconoes and such like, which when they fire up, leave a circle of melted ice above. Of course, the loonies, then take a picture, (purely above water) and blame Climate Crisis. You should remember this everytime you see a pic of a collapsing berg.
      https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/12/scientists-discover-91-volcanos-antarctica

      Reply

      • Avatar

        Zoe Phin

        |

        This is good stuff. I am however going even more basic than that. We don’t need hot vents, we can just have a dull and boring delivery of, say 0°C. 0°C is not nothing. And solar energy can easily add to that. Many doubt you can add solar flux to geo flux, but then how does a solar panel work?

        I have one of those solar powered calculators you get free at any serious convention center conference. The light energy does not need to balance or overcome the ambient infrared environment, or thr temperature of the calculator.

        Anyway, I started a blog:
        http://phzoe.wordpress.com

        I will eventually cover geothermal.

        It’s a lot easier to make comments than have your own blog. I already got writer’s block 🙂 No problem, I will progress slowly with some introductory material.

        I would appreciate any suggestions.

        Reply

        • Avatar

          geran

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          It’s good to see some fresh climate comedy: “Many doubt you can add solar flux to geo flux, but then how does a solar panel work?”

          The old routines were getting boring.

          Reply

          • Avatar

            Zoe Phin

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            What’s so funny, geran? Please share with us so we can all have a good laugh.

          • Avatar

            geran

            |

            Climate clowns continually get the physics wrong, and they can’t learn. Great comedy.

            But, you add to the comedy by believing you’ve “discovered” geothermal energy. Obviously you’ve never heard of volcanoes, lava vents, geysers, and deep-mine temperatures.

            And combining your incompetence is hilarious: “Many doubt you can add solar flux to geo flux, but then how does a solar panel work?”

            Great material! More please.

          • Avatar

            Zoe Phin

            |

            Geran,
            As far as I know, I’m the first to suggest that Earth’s and Venus’ geothermal create the surface temperature. Of course there are hot things spewing out of the surface, but in climate “science” they are local and don’t do anything else. Geothermal is not in the energy budget and if it was they would erroneously show it as 90 mW/m^2 – which I was the first to explain that this is a fallacy.

            Why are you laughing at my solar panel observation? Not only is the solar panel at ambient temperature but it is also collecting flux that will become electricity.

            If you look at the solar absorption spectrum, you will see that GHGs can collect energy directly from the sun regardless if it’s greater or less than earth infrared radiation.

          • Avatar

            geran

            |

            More comedy from Zoe: “As far as I know, I’m the first to suggest that Earth’s and Venus’ geothermal create the surface temperature.”

            Yes Zoe, you should seek both a patent and a copyright on your “discoveries”.

            The comedy continues….

          • Avatar

            Zoe Phin

            |

            Geran,
            Maybe you can point to a climate scientist that said surface temperatures are dependent on solar AND geothermal?

            Show me where geothermal properly fits in the energy budget. Go ahead.

            Oh you can’t?
            Come on! If I’m unoriginal please prove it.

          • Avatar

            geran

            |

            Zoe, I’m not disagreeing with you. I’m encouraging you. I enjoy good comedy.

            As I suggested: You should seek both a patent and a copyright on your “discoveries”.

  • Avatar

    jerry krause

    |

    Hi Zoe,

    I sometimes, maybe often, do not agree with what you write. So, I try not comment about this. But about what this comment I basically do agree with what you wrote and I make this comment to endorse it.

    Have a good day, Jerry

    Reply

  • Avatar

    jerry krause

    |

    Hi Zoe,

    Several years ago, before I discovered PSI, my daughter convinced me that I should create as blog-site to share my ideas with others. I read that you are just doing this. In my case, there was no evidence (no comments) that anyone was reading my posts. So I quickly concluded it was a waste of time and even though it is still there on the internet, I no longer waste my time going there to see if someone has made a comment.

    Just some experience for you to consider. Clearly, PSI has more readers than most other blog-sites where each post generates hundreds of comments which repeat and repeat basically the same arguments and these hundreds of comments are the product of the same few individuals.

    Just some information that you might consider.

    Have a good day, Jerry

    Reply

    • Avatar

      Zoe Phin

      |

      Jerry,
      True, but I’m considering the amount of time I wasted making comments when I should have been dubbing my arguings in my own blog. I can now save time and just point to my articles.

      Speaking of which, I have a new one out today:
      https://phzoe.wordpress.com/2019/11/04/why-the-greenhouse-effect-is-a-fraud-part-2/

      Sure some arguments are the same, but one hopes that they are presented in a fresh new way. Also, there is always new people joining the fight.

      Thank you Jerry.

      Reply

      • Avatar

        jerry krause

        |

        Hi Zoe,

        If you cite reproducible observations or measurements, there can be no arguments.

        Have a good day, Jerry

        Reply

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