A Better Explanation of Climate than ‘Greenhouse Gases’
Written by Dr. Peter L. Ward (Geophysics)
Recent discovery of a fundamental mistake in the physics of heat explained below suggests that greenhouse-warming theory may not only be mistaken, it may not even be physically possible.
Don’t you think we should re-evaluate the science before spending such large amounts of money on junk science?
Since 1798, physicists have thought of heat as being a rate of flow of thermal energy per second—a flux. The greater the flux absorbed, the higher the temperature of the absorbing body is assumed to become. Note that this definition does not require us to specify or even understand what thermal energy actually is physically.
In 1896, Svante Arrhenius quantified greenhouse-warming theory thinking in terms of net flux—the amount of flux of thermal energy absorbed by Earth minus the amount of flux of thermal energy lost into space by Earth. Just four years later, in 1900, Max Planck formulated an empirical equation based on extensive laboratory measurements showing that the physical properties of heat change with the temperatures of the radiating and absorbing bodies and that flux is simply a function of this difference in their temperatures—not a function of the net amount of flux of thermal energy. In other words, what is important for warming is not the amount of radiation flowing, as currently assumed, but the physical properties of the radiation.
Furthermore, in 1900 physicists were just beginning to understand the atomic structure of matter. Electrons had just been discovered in 1897 and the nucleus of atoms would not be discovered until 1909. It would be many decades before physicists began to understand that thermal energy in matter, physically, is the oscillation of all the bonds holding matter together. We are just beginning to understand now that the amplitude of oscillation at each frequency of oscillation is transmitted through air and space via resonance, as described below, much like a radio signal at a single frequency, but thermal energy is transmitted at all frequencies of oscillation simultaneously.
There Is an Alternative Explanation for Observed Warming
Recent warming and warming throughout Earth history can be explained far more precisely and in much greater detail by observed depletion of the ozone layer caused by chlorine and bromine gases. One atom of chlorine, under the right atmospheric conditions in the lower stratosphere, is observed to destroy approximately 100,000 molecules of ozone, making ozone depletion the Achilles heel of climate warming.
The ozone layer protects life on Earth from the highest energy solar radiation to reach the lower stratosphere. Ozone depletion allows more than usual of this very hot, ultraviolet-B radiation to reach Earth. Ultraviolet-B radiation is 48 times more energetic and has 48 times greater thermal effect on the absorbing body than infrared radiation absorbed most strongly by carbon dioxide. Ultraviolet-B radiation has enough energy to burn your skin and cause skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations.
Climate scientists have dismissed ozone depletion as being unimportant for warming because they failed to understand that the narrow band of frequencies, the small amount of frequencies, contained in ultraviolet-B radiation is far more important energetically than the broad band of frequencies, the large amount of frequencies, of the much less energetic infrared radiation absorbed by greenhouse gases. Ultraviolet-B radiation causes sunburn while no amount of infrared radiation over any length of time can cause sunburn.
Ozone depletion and related warming began to increase around 1970 as humans began manufacturing more and more chlorofluorocarbon gases used as refrigerants, solvents, and foam-blowing agents. These gases, when broken down by ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere, release atoms of chlorine, depleting the ozone layer. Global warming stopped increasing in 1998 after the United Nations Montreal Protocol had mandated major cutbacks in production of these chlorofluorocarbon gases. Humans appear to have caused the increase in warming beginning around 1970 and to have stopped this increase in warming by 1998. Warming throughout Earth history, on the other hand, appears to have been caused by large, effusive, basaltic, volcanic eruptions covering hundreds to millions of square kilometers of land, emitting megatons of chlorine and bromine (See WhyClimateChanges.com).
Ozone depletion, which is greatest during winter in polar regions, explains why the greatest warming observed was on the Antarctic Peninsula, just inside the Antarctic ozone hole, why warming primarily affects minimum monthly temperatures when ozone is most depleted, and why warming has been greatest at latitudes above forty degrees. Furthermore, the northern hemisphere contains 90% of world population and most industry, suggesting ground-level ozone formed by pollution may be dissociated by the increased ultraviolet-B radiation causing greater observed air temperatures in the most populated areas as observed.
Read more at whyclimatechanges.com
Dr. Peter L. Ward worked 27 years as a geophysicist and program leader for the United States Geological Survey. After retiring, he has been able to put his full-time effort, for ten years, into trying to understand what really causes global warming.
PRINCIPIA SCIENTIFIC INTERNATIONAL, legally registered in the UK as a company incorporated for charitable purposes. Head Office: 27 Old Gloucester Street, London WC1N 3AX. Telephone: Calls from within the UK: 020 7419 5027. International dialling: (44) 20 7419 5027.