Wandering of the Geomagnetic poles

Written by www.ngdc.noaa.gov

Magnetic poles are defined in different ways. They are commonly understood as positions on the Earth’s surface where the geomagnetic field is vertical (i.e., perpendicular) to the ellipsoid.

(Figure right) Trace of the magnetic dip poles during 1590 – 2010 as derived from geomagnetic models. geomagnetic poles

The magnetic field from 1590 – 1980 (green line) is given by the GUFM model, while the field from 1980 – 2010 (red line) is given by the 10th generation of the IGRF. The locations of the poles (1590-2015) are available for download here: North Pole South Pole.

These north and south positions, called dip poles, do not need to be (and are not currently) antipodal. In principle the dip poles can be found by conducting a magnetic survey to determine where the field is vertical. Other definitions of geomagnetic poles depend on the way the poles are computed from a geomagnetic model. In practice the geomagnetic field is vertical on oval-shaped loci traced on a daily basis, with considerable variation from one day to the next.

Experimental observations of dip poles

It has been long understood that dip poles migrate over time. In 1831, James Clark Ross located the north dip pole position in northern Canada. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) tracked the North Magnetic Pole, which is slowly drifting across the Canadian Arctic, by periodically carrying out magnetic surveys to reestablish the Pole’s location from 1948 to 1994. An international collaboration, led by a French fundraising association, Poly-Arctique, and involving NRCan, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Bureau de Recherche Geologique et Miniere, added two locations of the North Magnetic Pole in 2001 and 2007. The most recent survey determined that the Pole is moving approximately north-northwest at 55 km per year.

Model derived geomagnetic poles

Geomagnetic field models can also define geomagnetic poles. The geomagnetic poles, or geocentric dipole, can be computed from the first three Gauss coefficients from a main field model, such as the World Magnetic Model (WMM) or International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). The WMM representation of the field includes a magnetic dipole at the center of the Earth. This dipole defines an axis that intersects the Earth’s surface at two antipodal points called geomagnetic poles. Based on the WMM2010 coefficients for 2010.0 the geomagnetic north pole is at 72.21°W longitude and 80.08°N latitude, and the geomagnetic south pole is at 107.79°E longitude and 80.08°S latitude. The axis of the dipole is currently inclined at 9.98° to the Earth’s rotation axis. The same dipole is the basis for the simple geomagnetic coordinate system of geomagnetic latitude and longitude. Scientists, map makers and polar explorers have an interest in the locations of the dip and geomagnetic poles. Although geomagnetic pole positions cannot be observed, they are arguably of greater significance than the dip poles because the auroral ovals (approximate 5° latitude bands where the spectacular aurora is likely visible) are closely centered on the geomagnetic poles. They are usually displaced slightly to the night-side of the geomagnetic poles and greatly vary in size: bands of greatest activity occur between 15° and 25° from the geomagnetic poles.A software for computing the locations of geomagnetic pole is available here.

Movement of magnetic poles from 1590 to 2010

The magnetic poles or dip pole are computed from all the Gauss coefficients using an iterative method. Magnetic poles derived in this fashion are more closer to the experimentaly observed poles. Based on the current WMM model, the 2010 location of the north magnetic pole is 84.97°N and 132.35°W and the south magnetic pole is 64.42°S and 137.34°E. The Google map (above) illustrates the movement of the magnetic poles during 1590 to 2010 derived from the GUFM (1590 – 1980) and IGRF (1981 – 2010) models. The GUFM model (Jackson et al., 2000, Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 358, 957- 90.) covers the period 1590 -1990 and is based on ship log data. The path reflects the chaotic and independent movement of magnetic poles. For example, the present rate of progression of the north magnetic pole (55 km/year) is significantly higher than that of the South Pole.


Read more at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/GeomagneticPoles.shtml

Comments (3)

  • Avatar

    Pat Obar


    Good God,
    Consider:”The magnetic field from 1590 – 1980 (green line) is given by the GUFM model, while the field from 1980 – 2010 (red line) is given by the 10th generation of the IGRF. The locations of the poles (1590-2015) are available for download here: North Pole , South Pole.”

    This claim is that the physical is a product of the model.
    What interbreeding of academics represents this?
    Any computer model of this planet considers both the deterministic of history amid the statistical (noise). Any prediction or projection is nonsense in this condition where the deterministic is never projected.
    The physical “is” right here, right now. but the “next” is completely incomprehensible to earthlings, as demanded by the local God!

    • Avatar

      Joseph A Olson



      “First the sentence, and then the evidence” as the Queen of Heats said in Wonderland. NASA Faux Scientists have replaced reality with models and sadly can no longer be trusted. Visit the Electric Universe site for multiple youtube presentations that provide a far more coherent model than you will find down the NASA bunny hole.

  • Avatar

    Joseph A Olson


    This article is for introduction of data, as NASA makes no claims for the observed conditions. Based on recent seismic information, the core of Earth is a 900 mile diameter, cubic crystal Iron structure rotating faster than the surface. Iron molecules are dipolar, aligning with existing magnetic fields in molten state, providing evidence of previous pole orientation. This cubic Iron crystal constitutes a giant, permanent magnet, with the rotation providing additional magnetic force (causing field strength variations) and variations in the axis of rotation are manifested in the observed magnetic declination changes.

    Discussion of the possible morphology of Earth’s magnetic field are in “No Loophole for Your Soul” and other articles under the Geo-nuclear tab at the FauxScienceSlayer website. In addition, new information by the Electric Universe on the galactic magnetic field evidence points to a motor-generator set between almost all celestial bodies.


    Thankfully NASA did not interject elitist directed false memes over human causes for magnetic variation. Every youtube presentation by the Electric Universe and their Thunderbolt Project is worthy of consideration and discussion.

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