The Great Climate Change Bamboozle

Written by Nick Schroeder, BSME, PE

“The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary.”
H. L. Mencken

IPCC graphs like the one above tells us Earth’s carbon cycle contains 45,000 Gt (E15 gr) +/- 850 GT of stores and reservoirs with a couple hundred Gt/y +/- ?? ebbing and flowing between those reservoirs. Mankind’s gross contribution over 260 years was 555 Gt or 1.2%. (IPCC AR5 Fig 6.1) Mankind’s net contribution, 240 Gt or 0.53%, (dry labbed by IPCC to make the numbers work) to this bubbling, churning caldron of carbon/carbon dioxide is 4 Gt/y +/- 96%. (IPCC AR5 Table 6.1) Seems relatively trivial to me. IPCC et. al. says natural variations can’t explain the increase in CO2. With these tiny percentages and high levels of uncertainty how would anybody even know?

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Scientists create part-human, part-pig embryo

Written by Sarah Kaplan

For the first time, scientists have grown an embryo that is part-pig, part-human.

The experiment, described Thursday in the journal Cell, involves injecting human stem cells into the embryo of a pig, then implanting the embryo in the uterus of a sow and allowing it to grow. After four weeks, the stem cells had developed into the precursors of various tissue types, including heart, liver and neurons, and a small fraction of the developing pig was made up of human cells.

The human-pig hybrid — dubbed a “chimera” for the mythical creature with a lion’s head, a goat’s body and a serpent’s tail — was “highly inefficient,” the researchers cautioned. But it’s the most successful human-animal chimera and a significant step toward the development of animal embryos with functioning human organs.

In a study published a day earlier, an international team of researchers demonstrated that organs for transplant can be grown in chimera embryos that are part-mouse, part-rat. Writing in Nature, the researchers reported Wednesday that they were able to grow a mouse pancreas inside a rat embryo, then transfer insulin-secreting tissue from that organ into diabetic mice, alleviating their illness without triggering an immune response.

It was the first demonstration that such an interspecies organ transplant is possible. Researchers hope that one day doctors may be able to grow human tissue using chimera embryos in farm animals, making organs available for sick human patients who might otherwise wait years for a transplant.

The technique is already the subject of a vigorous debate about the ethics of introducing human material into animals; since 2015, the National Institutes of Health has had a moratorium on funding for most human-animal chimera research. (The new study was performed in California at the Salk Institute without federal funds.) Some argue that, since stem cells can become any kind of tissue, including parts of the nervous system, chimeras raise the specter of an animal with a human brain or reproductive organs. Others feel there’s a symbolic or sacred line between human and animal genetic material that should not be crossed.

But Vardit Ravitsky, a bioethicist at the University of Montreal’s School of Public Health, said that the two studies published this week could help make a case for further human-animal chimera research by demonstrating the field’s potential benefits.

“I think the point of these papers is sort of a proof of principle, showing that what researchers intend to achieve with human-non-human chimeras might be possible,” she said. “The more you can show that it stands to produce something that will actually save lives … the more we can demonstrate that the benefit is real, tangible and probable — overall it shifts the scale of risk-benefit assessment, potentially in favor of pursing research and away from those concerns that are more philosophical and conceptual.”

In an effort to address the world’s growing organ shortage — an estimated 22 people a day die waiting for transplants, according to U.S. Department of Health — scientists have been trying to grow organs outside of the human body. But organs developed in petri dishes are not identical to the ones that grow inside a living thing.

“That’s where the rationale of this kind of experiment comes in,” said Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, a developmental biologist the Salk Institute and the senior author on the study of the human-pig chimera. “What if we let nature do the work for us? What if we just put human cells inside the embryo and the embryo knows what do to?”

The model for using chimeras for organ transplant would probably look something like the technique reported in Nature. In that experiment, researchers took induced pluripotent stem cells (ordinary cells that have been reverted to an early embryonic state, so that they have the potential to develop into any tissue type) from mice. These cells were then injected into rat embryos that had been genetically modified so that they were unable to grow their own pancreas — “emptying a niche” for the mouse stem cells to fill.

The embryonic rats developed normally and were born healthy. Each had a rat-sized pancreas made of mouse cells. The whole pancreases were too big to transplant into tiny mice, so the researchers extracted just the islets — the region of the pancreas that produces hormones like insulin — and planted them in mice that had been induced to have diabetes.

Because the transplanted cells were grown from stem cells taken from mice, the animals required just five days of immunosuppressive drugs to keep their bodies from rejecting the new tissue. After that, they were able to live normally with healthy blood glucose levels for over a year — half a lifetime in human terms.

The study showed that interspecies organ transplants are not only possible, but they can be done effectively and safely, said Hiromitsu Nakauchi, a stem cell researcher at Stanford University and the University of Tokyo who is the senior author of the study.

“This is a form of transplantation we could do in the clinic with human patients some day,” he said.

Nakauchi also conducts research on human-chimera embryos, but his efforts to inject human stem cells into sheep embryos have largely been unsuccessful — the evolutionary distance between humans and livestock may be making it difficult to get human stem cells to take hold in those animals. Other researchers have achieved human-mouse chimeras that developed to full size and grew to adulthood, but there is debate about how substantially human cells can contribute to mice, which are much more distantly related.

He said he was cheered to read the Cell study, which represents the most significant progress on human-animal chimeras yet, though the technique is still nowhere near ready for an experiment like the one performed in Nakauchi’s mice.

“If you read the paper, the contribution of human cells is very limited, is very, very minor, and only in the early embryonic phase so we’re still not sure if we can make human chimeras,” he cautioned. “But I’m glad that they’re doing this research.”

The Cell study was the result of four years of work involving some 1,500 pig embryos. These embryos were not genetically modified, like Nakauchi’s rat embryos, but the Salk scientists used a similar technique to inject human stem cells.

Pigs are an ideal animal for chimera research, said co-author Pablo Ross, an associate professor in the department of animal science at the University of California, Davis. Their organs are roughly the same size as those of humans (recall that the pancreases grown in Nakauchi’s rats were rat-sized, even though they were grown with mouse cells), but they reach their full size far more quickly than humans and other primates.

“You go from one cell [at] fertilization to 200 pounds, the average size of an adult [pig], in nine months,” Ross said. “I think that’s very reasonable, when you think about the fact that the average wait for a kidney transplant is about three years.”

Still, pigs’ rapid gestation means that their organs develop much more rapidly than those of humans. If researchers want to create a successful chimera, they have to consider timing.

So Ross and his colleagues used three different types of stem cells for their experiment: “naive” cells that were at the very earliest stages of development, “primed” cells that have developed further (but are still pluripotent), and “intermediate” cells that are somewhere in between.

Dozens of cells of each type were injected into pig embryos, which were then implanted in sows and allowed to develop for three to four weeks (about a quarter of a pig’s gestation period). The primed cells never really took hold in the host embryo. The naive cells were initially incorporated into the growing animal, but were indistinguishable in the developing pig four weeks later.

The intermediate cells were most successful; by the time the embryos were removed from the sow and analyzed, about one in every 100,000 cells was human rather than pig, lead author Jun Wu estimated. The human cells were distributed randomly across the chimera: many wound up in what would become the heart (where they made up about 10 percent of tissue), some in the kidneys and liver (1 percent or less). A few developed into the precursors of neurons, a fear of bioethicists who worry about creating an animal with human or even humanlike consciousness.

But Izpisua Belmonte said that prospect is still a long way off. The contribution of human cells to the chimera was tiny, and research protocols were in place to prevent the development of any human-animal chimera to maturity.

“We were just trying to answer the yes or no question of, can human cells contribute at all?” he said. “And the answer to that question is yes.”

The Cell study researchers also discussed progress with rat-mouse chimeras. Though they have not performed an interspecies organ transfer, they were able to grow hearts, eyes and pancreases in chimeric embryos. They also grew a rat gall bladder inside a mouse embryo, even though rats don’t grow gall bladders during normal development — suggesting that rats have the genetic coding for gall bladders but those genes are suppressed by their developmental environment.

Read more at www.washingtonpost.com

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Climate Follies: countering Fake News

Written by Steven Hayward

Climate change is such a bore that I can scarcely be bothered to keep up with it any more, but now and then I try to check in. The latest news is that 2016 was the hottest year ever, well, that is the hottest year for which we have decent records, which is, at best, about 150 years. Seriously? Moreover, you have to dig past the breathless news reports to find that we broke the old record by—wait for it now—0.003 degrees C. (What was that you say about “margin of error”? Doesn’t count in climate change, don’t you know.)

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3D bio-printer to create human skin

Written by Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Bioprinter prototype.
Credit: Image courtesy of Universidad Carlos III de Madrid – Oficina de Información Científica
 Scientists from the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), CIEMAT (Center for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research), Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, in collaboration with the firm BioDan Group, have presented a prototype for a 3D bioprinter that can create totally functional human skin. This skin is adequate for transplanting to patients or for use in research or the testing of cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical products.

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Carbon Dioxide: The future for a Cooler World

Written by John O'Sullivan

Will your next car have carbon dioxide air conditioning? For the last 30 years American academics and climate ‘experts’ have gotten away with telling us that carbon dioxide is a dangerous warming gas, a hazard to life. But in the real world engineers and applied scientists use carbon dioxide every day to keep us cool, grow better crops and refrigerate products. Indeed, CO2 is nature’s best cooling gas! Ask Mercedes Benz!

Thankfully, the voice of the sanity is getting heard – the truth is coming out and anti-science groups are furious. For instance, groupthink academics who claim that carbon dioxide is a global warming gas seem oblivious to the fact conventional refrigerants i.e. hydrofluorocarbons cause about 1,400 times more ‘global warming potential’ than the same quantity of cooling carbon dioxide.

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Study: Last Interglacial Era had higher Sea levels & Temperatures than today

Written by Jeremy S. Hoffman, Peter U. Clark et al.

Understanding how warm intervals affected sea level in the past is vital for projecting how human activities will affect it in the future. Hoffman et al. compiled estimates of sea surface temperatures during the last interglacial period, which lasted from about 129,000 to 116,000 years ago.

The global mean annual values were ∼0.5°C warmer than they were 150 years ago and indistinguishable from the 1995–2014 mean. This is a sobering point, because sea levels during the last interglacial period were 6 to 9 m higher than they are now.

Science, this issue p. 276

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Time For NASA To Terminate Gavin Schmidt

Written by Tony Heller

The New York Times is going off-chart with their climate lies, egged on by top climate fraudster Gavin Schmidt of NASA. They say the Arctic is hot and global warming is making people starve in Africa.

Exact opposite of Gavin’s Arctic claims, Alaska is seeing near record cold, as is Greenland and much of Russia.

Alaska Climate Research Center

Greenland Summit Camp

Africa is not burning up, rather they are seeing record snow.

Snow Sahara

Forty years ago, the New York Times blamed African drought and famine on global cooling. Now they blame global warming.

TimesMachine: December 29, 1974 – NYTimes.com

Gavin’s temperatures are fake. They don’t even vaguely match much more accurate satellite temperatures.

NASA Vs. Satellites

Gavin has massively tampered with his own data, to produce meaningless propaganda.

RSS   NASA 2000 and 2016

The New York Times blames 124 degree weather on global warming.  In 1913, it was 134 degrees during one of NASA’s coldest years on record.

California 1913

Sane policy will never occur while Gavin Schmidt continues to lie to the New York Times, and the New York Times continues to lie to their readers. President Trump should send these fraudsters packing.

Read more at realclimatescience.com

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Vanishing Point: the end of our shrinking computers

Written by Tim Cross

In 1971, Intel, then an obscure firm in what would only later come to be known as Silicon Valley, released a chip called the 4004. It was the world’s first commercially available microprocessor, which meant it sported all the electronic circuits necessary for advanced number-crunching in a single, tiny package. It was a marvel of its time, built from 2,300 tiny transistors, each around 10,000 nanometres (or billionths of a metre) across – about the size of a red blood cell. A transistor is an electronic switch that, by flipping between “on” and “off”, provides a physical representation of the 1s and 0s that are the fundamental particles of information.

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Berkeley Climate Scientist Exposed and Shamed in Data Howler

Written by John O'Sullivan

Alarmist scientist at Berkeley Earth exposed in global temperature fraud. Zeke Hausfather (pictured)  made the mistake of getting embroiled in an online debate with prominent skeptic, Tony Heller. A move he now regrets. 

After presenting a graph hoping to prove there has been no hiatus in global warming for 18 years Hausfather is swiftly exposed by Heller for cherry picking data. Heller demonstrates, turning Hausfather’s own reasoning  against him, how climate ‘scientists’  have made past temperatures appear cooler and modern temperatures seem warmer than is the case (full details below).

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Even Wasps make trade deals, say scientists

Written by University of Sussex

This is a picture of helper wasps used in the study.
Credit: T. Pennell
Wasps have trading partners and compete for the ‘best trade deals’ — according to scientists from the University of Sussex.

In the study, the team from the University’s School of Life Sciences, looked at how the economic rule of ‘supply and demand’ applies to populations of paper wasps — in which ‘helper wasps’ raise the offspring of dominant breeders in small social groups in return for belonging in the nest.

During the study, which was carried out in southern Spain over a period of three months, the team marked and genotyped 1500 wasps and recorded social behaviour within 43 separate nests along a cactus hedge.

By increasing the number of nest spots and nesting partners available around the hedge, the scientists discovered the helper wasps provide less help to their own ‘bosses’ (the dominant breeders) when alternative nesting options are available. The dominant wasps then compete to give the helper wasps the ‘best deal’, by allowing them to work less hard, to ensure they stay in their particular nest.

The scientists state this shows for the first-time that supply and demand theory can be used to understand helping behaviour in social insects. Traditionally scientists thought that factors within social groups, such as number of helpers and genetic relatedness, are what predominantly influences helping behaviour. However the new findings from the University of Sussex researchers show that market forces in the whole population, such as the supply of outside options, can be used to predict insect behaviour.

Dr Lena Grinsted, from the University of Sussex, said: “It is remarkable to discover that simply changing the wasps’ surrounding social environment has a clear effect on cooperative behaviour within groups.

“Our findings reveal intriguing parallels between wasp populations and our own business world: a bad deal is better than no deal, so when competition increases so does the risk that you have to accept a lower price for what you offer.

“Market forces can clearly affect trade agreements in nature, as they can in human markets: with a larger number of trading partners available, you can negotiate better trade deals.”


Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Sussex. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Lena Grinsted, Jeremy Field. Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps. Nature Communications, 2017; 8: 13750 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13750

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2017: Arctic Sea Ice Extent Largest in Three Years

Written by Tony Heller

Desperate to keep their fraudulently obtained funding coming in, climate experts continue to insist that the Arctic is hot and rapidly melting.

The exact opposite is occurring. Arctic sea ice is growing very fast, and is now higher than 2015 and 2016.

Ocean and Ice Services | Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut

The ice edge is close to the 1981-2010 mean.

‎nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/images/daily_images/N_daily_extent.png

Greenland is blowing away all records for ice gain this winter, having gained nearly 450 billion tons of ice since September 1.

Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Budget: DMI

Global warming is the biggest scam in science history.

Read more at realclimatescience.com

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New Paper: 14 Scientists Affirm the Sun, Not CO2, is ‘Dominant Control’ of Recent Climate Change

Written by Kenneth Richard

One of the oft-stated “truths” for advocates of the position that humans are predominantly responsible for climate changes is that the Sun could not have played more than a negligible role in the global warming of the last few centuries. Indeed, the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) report theorizes that the long-term solar contribution to climate change has been slightly above zero.

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New Study: CO2 emissions reduced risk of flooding in Africa

Written by Hannah R Parker, Fraser C Lott et al.

Abstract: In 2012, heavy rainfall resulted in flooding and devastating impacts across West Africa. With many people highly vulnerable to such events in this region, this study investigates whether anthropogenic climate change has influenced such heavy precipitation events.

We use a probabilistic event attribution approach to assess the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, by comparing the probability of such an event occurring in climate model simulations with all known climate forcings to those where natural forcings only are simulated.

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Cosmic Radiation ‘Clouds’ Penetrating as low as Commercial Flight Altitudes

Written by Tony Phillips

A new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Space Weather reports the discovery of radiation “clouds” at aviation altitudes. When airplanes fly through these clouds, dose rates of cosmic radiation normally absorbed by air travelers can double or more.

“We have flown radiation sensors onboard 264 research flights at altitudes as high as 17.3 km (56,700 ft) from 2013 to 2017,” says Kent Tobiska, lead author of the paper and PI of the NASA-supported program Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS). “On at least six occasions, our sensors have recorded surges in ionizing radiation that we interpret as analogous to localized clouds.”

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