At what concentration does CO2 become toxic to humans?

Written by Dr. Darko Butina


Or, What is the difference between the engine that runs the human body and the combustion engine? None!

The molecule carbon dioxide (CO2), a trace gas in our atmosphere is just about reaching concentration of 400 parts per million or 0.04%, as measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory, better known as MLO. The current public view of CO2 is that of a villain causing practically everything that is wrong on our planet, from prostitution to tsunamis, from schizophrenia to earthquakes, from overheating to overcooling, from floods to droughts and so on.

Since well over one thousand peer reviewed papers say so, since all of the major television and newspapers outlets say so, since lot of national academies say so, surely it must be so? Surely, to accuse someone of mass murder and even genocide one would expect overwhelming evidence against the CO2 molecule; not by thousands of unreliable witnesses that never met or saw the murderer, but by the hard forensic data, in this case experimental data.

Since the standard definition of excellence in the climate sciences is ‘the less you know about CO2 and the calibrated thermometer, the more eminent scientist you are’, I will humbly present to you some basic facts about CO2 that all those “ignorant specialist” in respiratory mechanisms and carbon chemistry are using in their daily jobs of pushing the frontiers of science forward, not backwards.

This report is about toxicity of CO2 and I will answer that infamous $64,000 question, or the way that the things are going at the moment, $64 trillion question: At what concentration does CO2 become toxic to humans?

So let me start with the first question raised in the title of this report. You see, there is no difference between the engine that runs the human body and the combustion engine – they both run on the molecules that are based on the element called carbon with the symbol C, they both need the O2 molecules to break the fuel down to smaller chunks, or rather oxidise the fuel/food that is needed for the engine to run, and they both produce CO2 as a product of that oxidation process. For every single carbon that enters that engine (human body or combustion engine) one molecule of CO2 comes out.

Let us now turn to the medical sciences and our knowledge of the respiratory mechanism that is the key to our survival. For a long time scientists working in the field of human physiology have wandered why evolutionary forces made humans breathe out and assign the function of breathing in and out to the brain?Whether you are awake or asleep, every breath in is followed by the breath out – why is that?

We could easily understand breathing in – the human body cannot function without oxygen and therefore we should be OK by just breathing in. The answer became obvious once we realised that all life is based on the carbon atom with the molecules of DNA and proteins being the two main engines of that life. Since everything that supports life is based on carbon, it follows that the major fuel which runs the human engine needs to be based on carbon. For clarity, whether you eat meat or are vegetarian, you are consuming carbon! And then the knowledge of chemistry comes in – oxygen function is to ‘oxidise’ and since all the food is based on carbon, the result is CO2: C + O2 = CO2. It therefore follows that inside your body lots of CO2 has been produced as a by-product which needs to be taken out of the body – hence breathing out. As any textbook on respiration will tell you:

“The primary function of the lungs is to obtain oxygen for use by the body’s cells and eliminate the carbon dioxide that cells produce”.

The figure at the top of the page below shows the general principle of the exchanges of different gases that occur between the lungs and the blood stream:

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Global Warming Fraud: More Evidence Carbon Dioxide Innocent

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Professor Vincent Gray provides a neat summary of a recent lecture by Professor Murry Salby in Hamburg, Germany, that throws more cold water on western governments’ global warming claims.  Gray’s full analysis is copied below:


JUNE 22nd 2013


CO2 fraud

The greatest difficulty facing the promoters of the theory that human emissions of carbon dioxide cause dangerous global warming is the inconvenient truth that it is impossible to measure the average temperature of the earth’s surface by any known technology. Without this information it is not possible to claim global warming.

In order to fake this claim the “Mean Global Surface Temperature Anomaly Record” (MGSTAR) was fabricated from temperature measurements made at meteorological weather stations.

It did not matter that:

  • There is no standardized method for making these observations;

  • They are unrepresentative of the earth’s surface, and worse the further back you go;

  • Their locations are mainly close to cities;

  • Only maximum and minimum temperatures are measured;

  • The number and location of stations changes daily

Despite these disabilities, which would have killed the idea in the days when genuine scientists controlled the scientific journals, the public have been persuaded that this dubious procedure is a genuine guide to global temperature change. They even seem to accept that a change in it over a century of a few decimals of a degree is cause for alarm

John Christy and Roy Spencer in 1979 at the University of Huntsville, Alabama established an alternative procedure for plotting global temperature anomalies in the lower troposphere by using the changes in the microwave spectrum of oxygen recorded by satellites on Microwave Sounder Units (MSUs). This overcame several of the disadvantages of the MGSTAR method.

It is almost truly global, not confined to cities. Although it misses the Arctic, this is also true of the MGSTAR. There have been some problems of calibration and reliability but they are far less than the problems of the  MSGTAR record. They are therefore more reliable.

From the beginning the two records have disagreed with one another. This created such panic that the supporters of the IPCC set up an alternative facility to monitor the results at Remote Sensing Systems under the aegis of NASA and in the capable hands of Frank Wentz, an IPCC supporter. It was confidently believed that the “errors” of Christy and Spencer would soon be removed. To their profound disappointment this has not happened, The RSS version of the Lower Troposphere global temperature anomaly record is essentially the same as that still provided by the University of Huntsville. It is also almost the same as the measurements made by radiosonde balloons over the same period

The MSU record has now been going for 34 years. Spencer has recently published a comparison between temperature predictions made by a large number of IPCC climate models and their projected future and the temperature record as shown by the MSUs and the balloons.

It is surely obvious that all the models are wrong and that their projections are nonsensical.  I might also add that the central line is also meaningless.

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The Anthropogenic Global Warming Controversy

Written by Professor Karl Erdman

by Professor Karl Erdman*


The simple estimation of the temperature of the surface of the earth assuming the earth behaves as a black body, and using the measured value of the radiation arriving from the sun, averaged over the total surface area of the earth, gives a value of –18°C at the necessary average radiative equilibrium at which the temperature is neither rising or falling.

parched earth


To raise the temperature from this calculate value, to the actual measured average of +14.5°C of the surface it has been postulated that the infrared radiation emitted by the surface is inhibited from leaving the earth by being captured by infrared absorbing gases in the atmosphere. This energy is subsequently emitted by these so called “greenhouse” gases back to the surface (backradiation) as well as into outer space. The radiation going back to the earth is postulated to raise the temperature of the surface to its measured value. The validity of this theory is in dispute as the process contravenes both the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics.

CO2 has the second largest cross section of the gases in the atmosphere for the absorption of the radiation emitted from the surface, although its absorbing power is only a tenth of that due to the much larger concentration of water vapor. The concentration of the CO2 has increased by 50% since the 1940s due to the burning of carbonaceous compounds for the production of energy. It has been postulated that this increase in the concentration of the CO2 has produced a rise in the temperature of the earth causing the melting of glaciers and a rise in the level of the oceans, and unless the production of CO2 is curtailed an environmentally catastrophic increase in the temperature of the climate will result.

The scenario has been given the name Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW). The transfer of the energy in the theory is postulated to be done by radiation. A detailed description of the process and a criticism of the theory was given by Joseph E. Postma in March of 2011 under the title: Understanding the Thermodynamic Atmosphere Effect. The paper can be found on the internet.

This short note is an overview of how the energy arrives, is converted to heat in the atmosphere and eventually leaves as infrared radiation. It is distributed throughout the atmosphere as heat according to well known thermodynamic rules discussed by Claes Johnson in his paper: Climate Thermodynamics (also available on the internet). The distribution of the heat is mostly done by conduction and convection. The energy eventually leaves the atmosphere as radiation in the final conversion process that takes place at the altitude in the atmosphere where the radiation leaving the earth has been measured to have the temperature corresponding to the calculated black body value.

A more detailed discussion of the controversy can be found in the book titled: Slaying the Sky Dragon: Death of the Greenhouse Gas Theory.

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EU renewables programme: unlawful?

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Legal recourse accepted by EU Court of Justice

The Court of Justice of the European Union has accepted the recourse presented by the European Platform Against Windfarms (EPAW) (1). The 608 associations composing the platform are hailing this as a first victory in their fight towards holding the European Commission accountable for the catastrophic results of its energy policy. The rights of European citizens have been violated, they claim, and at long last justice will be done.

UK wind farm

The Commission has failed to conduct technical studies calculating how many tonnes of fossil fuels will really be saved by the hundreds of thousands of wind turbines it wants to force onto rural populations and on avian and marine life. “As it turns out, various independent engineers estimate there will be no savings at all (2), so the people are more than justified to seek redress,” says Mark Duchamp, the conservationist who runs EPAW.

The Aarhus Convention (3) requires that programmes that will affect the environment be elaborated with the participation of the public in a transparent manner. This means that Europeans should have been fully informed of the benefits of the EU renewable energy programme, as well as of its costs and undesirable impacts. “Instead”, argues Duchamp, “the Commission has been parroting the claims of the wind industry without verifying them.”

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Hydrogen-Powered Cars – A Pipedream

Written by Dr. Klaus LE. Kaiser

A recent edition of our newspaper had a 24-page insert with the title “Green Agenda.” Actually, it’s a so-called Special Information Feature, AKA an “infomercial” on new car models and technologies.

That insert could lead you to believe that the touted “green technologies” will save both the planet and your wallet, neither of which is true though.

futuristic car

The Hydrogen Pipedream

Especially amusing or annoying (mostly the latter) are claims about elemental hydrogen as energy carrier of the future. It’s the same nonsense which you could see in TV commercials and read in the newspapers fifteen years ago. At that time we were told that hydrogen-powered cars were to be in car dealers’ showrooms by 2001, “ready to drive away.” Now, a dozen years later, the hype is still the same and nothing has changed, except for the “green alliances” for “sustainable future technologies” between some car manufacturers and the new date when it is all supposed to come together, now predicted for 2017. Of course, big government-sponsored handouts are available for such developments.

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UN Shock: Climate Talks Collapse!

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CFACT is reporting (June 13, 2013) on the surprise news that Russia has “derailed the treaty track” at the UN climate summit in Bonn, Germany.

Since opening in Germany last week Russia, along with the Ukraine and Belarus has successfully blocked any adoption of the agenda of the “Subsidiary Body for Implementation” (SBI). CFACT says “The SBI is the key negotiating track towards signing a UN climate treaty in Paris in 2015.”

UN Climate Conference collapses

The story continues:

The SBI has been unable to conduct any business in Bonn and has announced that it has suspended its business.  This has prevented the UN from considering, among other items, advancing the loss and damage mechanism (see CFACT’s report) that was perhaps the most significant outcome agreed to in Doha. “

The Russian gambit has effectively put a stop on many developing nations achieving the goal of a global warming route to wealth redistribution. But as many are now seeing, the man-made warming alarm is likely premised, not on science, but on a political agenda. The Voice of Russia reports that ”Global warming which has been the subject of so many discussions in recent years, may give way to global cooling.”

Principia Scientific International’s CEO, John O’Sullivan is less concerned about the politics and more focused on the actual scientific evidence. He commented, “This is possibly not such an unexpected development from the Russians being that their nation, like elsewhere across northern Europe, has seen a series of brutally cold winters followed by poor summers. The reality of thermometer readings this century proves that a whole generation of children have grown up not witnessing any measurable addition to alleged man-made global warming. Indeed, many leading astrophysicists, such as Dr. Habibullo Abdussamatov, are predicting our planet is now into a new mini ice age with decades of further cooling to come.”

CFACT adds:

If the UNFCCC successfully gets its climate treaty in Paris in 2015, the treaty will govern a tremendous portion of the economic activity of all mankind. Not billions, but trillions of dollars will be at stake. Nations will subordinate major portions of their sovereignty to the United Nations. Aside from whether the climate treaty is wise (it is not), can such a thing be created without due process? Without a vote? This would seem to contravene the principles upon which the UN was founded.

Those who stand for individual freedom and the due process which protects it owe Russia their thanks. Russia’s actions, however, appear to be largely self motivated. When al-Attiyah gaveled Russia down in Doha he wounded Russian pride – something Russia is historically willing to fight for. “

To read more visit CFACT.

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The New Illions

Written by Dr. Klaus L.E. Kaiser

Times were when everyone counted the same way; one thousand, one million, one billion, and so on. But this is no longer the case. In fact, it has not been for quite some time, though few people noticed. Depending on where you are, a billion can be a billion, or one thousand times as much.
Coming with the never-ending loss of purchasing power of most currencies, due to governments “printing money” ad libitum, many numbers have gone from millions to billions, to trillions, and beyond, all over the world. But that is the problem. Not everyone counts the same. In European and most other countries, the system of nomenclature is different than in North America, though some of the identical words are being used. It is best described with a table, as follows:
Kaiser Numbers
As you can see in this short table, the terms billion and trillion occur twice, but with different meanings in Europe and the US. Obviously, such different meanings of identical terms can (and will) lead to confusion, misunderstandings, and consequently to problems in commerce, science, etc.
With both systems heavily entrenched over a long time, there is no easy way to come to common definitions now, even if the world desired that. So, what is the path forward? I can see only one solution, in principle, namely the creation of new words, which could be adopted by everyone without problem. As we all have become familiar with “..illions” of some sort, a new term should incorporate that part of these words for numbers, at least. A numerical term, describing unequivocally the number could be the count of zeros. For example, an US billion could be called an “Illion-9”, an European billion could be called an “Illion-12”, and so on, as shown in the last column of the table. This proposal is just one of many possibilities.
The time has come when universally accepted and clearly defined terms are needed to describe the “gadzillions” of currency units floating about in the world, not to mention astronomical distances and other values of the multi-illion type.
For more facts on a variety of subjects, visit now:

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Climate Change Deception Easy Because Most Don’t Understand

Written by Dr. Tim Ball

It occurred to me….” When somebody says “let me be honest with you” does it mean they haven’t been previously?


Two videos reveal important information about why and how the global warming/climate change deception was, and continues to be, successful. The major reason is because only 20 percent of the population is comfortable with science. Even among scientists the degree of specialization makes most of them unfamiliar with climate science or climatology. Everyone else was vulnerable to the deception that occurred, especially because it was deliberately conceived and exploited.

A presentation by Professor Murray Salby illustrates what is wrong with climate science and the climate models and why people don’t understand and were easily fooled. A presentation by Simon Buckle tries to justify the models and define the terms skeptic and denier central to public misunderstanding. He gets it wrong and only underscores the effectiveness of the deception.

Official climate science of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is disintegrating from self-inflicted wounds. They did not carry out proper scientific testing of the hypothesis that human CO2 is causing global warming and latterly climate change, known as anthropogenic global warming (AGW). They worked to prove rather than disprove the hypothesis, but failed. Despite the failures they made false claims now exposed by actual events.

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Taxing Air: Facts and fallacies about climate change

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Taxing Air:Facts and fallacies about climate change authored by Australians Professor Bob Carter and John Spooner with Bill Kininmonth, Martin Feil, Stewart Franks and Bryan Leyland is a welcome new skeptical publication due for release on July 1, 2013. PSI is delighted to showcase it and reproduces the flyer as follows:
Taxing Air by Bob Carter and John Spooner
In this accessible and beautifully produced full colour book The Age’s brilliant political cartoonist John Spooner and leading environmental scientist Professor Bob Carter combine with colleagues to answer a series of critical and highly controversial questions about the politics and science of climate change.
Could it be that the emperor has no clothes?
But is it possible that instead the so-called consensus science around global warming – produced by lavishly funded research institutes, and with its own international political lobby organization, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – is wrong?

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PSI Senior Member in Cancer Breakthrough Team

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Professor Karl Erdmann, a senior member of Principia Scientific International (PSI) is part of the Canadian research term now widely feted in Canada for their important breakthrough in the medical isotope race towards better cancer treatment.

Karl Erdmann and the Medical Cyclotron

Canada’s national news broadcaster, CBC News has reported (Jun 9, 2013) that Professor Erdman and his colleagues at Advanced Cyclotron Systems “have reached an important milestone in the development of a new source of medical isotopes that does not rely on Canada’s aging nuclear reactors. Radioisotopes are vital diagnostic tools used on 30,000 Canadians each week to detect medical conditions such as cancer or heart disease.”

The modest Professor Erdman, a key figure from the outset, told PSI, I have never been one that has craved publicity. I didn’t know it was going to be on the news and didn’t really see the photographer as one of the technicians was explaining to me how he had changed a design of a part of the measuring apparatus in the system.”

Radioisotopes are vital diagnostic tools used on 30,000 Canadians each week to detect medical conditions such as cancer or heart disease.This new device promises to provide large-scale production of TC-99m, the isotope needed for medical imaging such as CT scans.

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Black Hole and Big Bang A Simplified Refutation

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Stephen J. Crothers recently published (June 5, 2013) his long-awaited ‘Black Hole and Big Bang: A Simplified Refutation‘ announcing that “the non-mathematical reader is no longer disadvantaged. The black hole and big bang are laid bare for all to see.”

Crothers asserts: “Certain professors might be particularly disturbed, given their penchant for appearing on national television in Australia where they told Tall Tales from the Legendary Past.”

Certainly, Crothers correctly points out that complicated mathematics has prevented many people from understanding black hole theory and big bang cosmology. But as Crothers demonstrates with his new paper, anybody with knowledge of arithmetic and very basic high school algebra is actually equipped to also understand the salient mathematics.

artists impression of a Black Hole

This new paper presents in basic form and mostly without mathematics, why the black hole and big bang cosmology are mutually exclusive, and why General Relativity itself may be shown to be “inconsistent and therefore untenable as a scientific theory,” says Crothers.

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Opening a new Debate on HIV and the Causes of AIDS

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Last week Principia Scientific International (PSI) caused a real stir by publishing an article highlighting the fact that an increasing number of eminent scientists and medical researchers are now questioning whether the consensus is right about the causes of AIDS.


In ‘More Scientists Question Whether HIV Causes AIDS‘ we showed that Peter Duesberg, professor of molecular and cell biology and one of the first scientists to isolate the cancer gene, says the consensus about AIDS is certainly wrong. Professor Duesberg and others are standing up to speak out as more evidence is streaming forth showing that HIV may be a harmless passenger virus.

Since running that story we have received numerous concerned messages that Principia Scientific International (PSI) is going down a blind alley questioning the AIDS orthodoxy. Well, please rest assured, PSI’s role in this is strictly as honest broker/devil’s advocate.

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Latour Light Conjecture Confirmed

Written by Dr. Pierre R Latour

Remember the electromagnetic radiation spectrum from long, low energy radio waves through visible light to short, high energy gamma rays?

I wondered whether it went to infinity from both ends: infinitely long wavelengths across the universe and zero length infinite energy gamma rays.

electromagnetic spectrum

My college physics book, Sears & Zemansky, University Physics, 1955, p719, shows scale Lmin <10-14 m, fmax >1023 cps and Lmax >107 m, fmin <10 cps. L*f = c = 3*108 m/s; L = wave length, m; f = frequency, waves/sec or cps. Visible f = 5*1014 cps, L = 6*10-7 m.

In 2005 I made the conjecture the answer was no. The span is finite. EMR is quantized, so the long wavelength is limited by the minimum Plank energy of photons and the shortest wavelength is limited to the minimum Plank distance.

If Lmin = Pl = 1.6*10-35 m,

fmax = 3*108 m/s /1.6*10-35 = 1.85*1043 cps. Fast!

Photon E, erg = h*f = hc/L, where h = Plank constant = 6.627*10-27 erg-sec.

Set Emin or fmin. If fmin = 1 cps, Emin = h and Lmax = 3*108 m.

Lmax could be size of universe, >8*1010 light years across = >7*1023 km.

Need photon Emin. Lmax = hc/Emin.

First a summary of what is light?

Light is massless, pure energy, electro-magnetic radiation waves or/and photons. A 100 watt light bulb emits 1020 photons/sec. Of all the energy emitted by the sun, only 2 photons in a billion warm Earth, the rest radiating uselessly into space.

One of the most important ideas of physics is the field, which maps the presence and magnitude of a force at different points in space. All electric fields represent stored energy. Light is an energy field coexisting in the space-time field that constitutes the universe.

Maxwell proved a changing magnetic field makes an electric field, electrons flow, electricity. Further a moving electric charge makes a magnetic field, magnets. Electromagnetic fields are magnetic fields perpendicular to electric fields. They are waves of electromagnetic radiation propagating with different wavelengths at fixed speed of light in a vacuum, c = 300,000 km/sec = 0.3 m/nanosec. Maxwell wrote the four partial differential equations that precisely and completely describe that energy field, everywhere, forever. That is one of the most elegant, profound and useful discoveries of the human mind!

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More Scientists Question Whether HIV causes AIDS

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Consensus medicine tells us that HIV causes AIDS. However, the consensus is invariably proved incorrect in the ever-advancing world of science.

Peter Duesberg, professor of molecular and cell biology and one of the first scientists to isolate the cancer gene, says the consensus about AIDS is certainly wrong; as more evidence is streaming forth showing that HIV is a harmless passenger virus. 

Professor Peter Duesberg

In his controversial book “Inventing the AIDS Virus” Professor Duesberg accurately states infectious diseases, by nature, will spread through the population without paying attention to age, gender, sexual orientation or social status. However, in the decades since the 80’s first gave us the AIDS scare the predicted epidemic has primarily remained within certain risk groups. To state this fact is not to trivialize a disease that blights the lives of many, but to help sharpen minds with a statement of proven science.

Pointedly, Professor Duesberg is seeing thousands of fellow scientists and campaign groups such as agreeing that the reason why AIDS cases have gone up over the years is due to artificiality. That is: the definition of what AIDS IS has been repeatedly changed. Have all you skeptics of man-made global warming not heard of this trick before?

As those of us who have fought for years against the climate fraud can attest, when you take on “Big Science” you take on a ruthless self-serving industry less concerned with scientific ethics and more about building profits and forging consensus. For some ideological, and for others financial motives are the primer. But the smoking gun of any scientific fraud is the quality (or lack thereof) of the empirical evidence.

In July 2012 the Austrian biologist and researcher Christl Meyer presented new scientific evidence that the so called “HIV-virus,” the claimed cause of AIDS, does not exist. Meyer compellingly exposes the fallacies of consensus HIV/AIDS theories and why the HIV vaccine campaign may constitute genocide against Africans and the Third World.

Meyer echoes the science of HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier, who in an extended House of Numbers interview stated:

“I believe we can be exposed to HIV many times without being chronically infected, our immune system will get rid of the virus within a few weeks, if you have a good immune system.” 

Then there is the work of Harvard-trained MD Nancy Banks who stirred up a hornets’ nest with her book “AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire”, subtitled “The Deadly Virus of International Greed.” Dr. Banks spent 25 years as a general obstetrician/gynecologist (OBGYN) attending patients at North General, Nyack Hospital, Columbia Presbyterian and Mt. Sinai Hospital and Medical Center. She cared for thousands of women who trusted her as their primary physician, obstetrician and surgeon.

Nancy Banks

In a recorded interview Dr. Banks offers a wide ranging discussion about the fraudulent science that underpins the AIDS scare with Terry Michael and RA President David Crowe at

While Principia Scientific International (PSI) holds no official position in this controversy we do support any and all scientists who – like us – advocate openness and transparency. Many PSI members have learned from bitter personal experience that honest whistleblowers are too often condemned for evincing evidence that is “inconvenient” to a mainstream often set on preserving a lucrative status quo.

For that reason PSI is pleased to announce it has opened up a dialogue with the Office of Medical and Scientific Justice (OMSJ) to explore how we may mutually interact for the furtherance of defeating junk science. John O’Sullivan (PSI’s CEO) and Clark Baker (OMSJ’s CEO and Principal Investigator) are currently exploring how our two complementary organisations may implement strategies to tackle science corruption.

In the meantime PSI readers are encouraged to take a look at the work of OMSJ as well as organizations like Rethinking AIDSHEAL LondonThe Perth Group and thousands of ethical scientists and researchers not afraid to speak out. Feedback is welcome from members and non-members in the open comments section below.

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