# on The ‘Stupid’ Paper by Fromholz, Poisson and Will

Written by Stephen J Crothers

A paper has been recently posted to arXiv by Fromholz, Poisson, and Will (http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0394). In their paper titled “The Schwarzschild metric: It’s the coordinates, stupid!” the Authors consider the so-called ‘Schwarzschild solution’ for “a vacuum, static spherical spacetime” and attempt to determine a general means by which equivalent solutions can be generated.

They have however, failed to obtain this means, deriving instead by their methods only one already

known equivalent form, which has no physical significance. Their paper is without any scientific merit.

The full downloadable PDF, ‘On The ‘Stupid’ Paper by Fromholz, Poisson and Will,’ may be located at viXra.org where, over 19 pages, Stephen J Crothers addresses the false arguments for the black hole adduced by Fromholz, Poisson, and Will. Mathematics is employed. Version [2] corrects some typographical anomalies.

Here are selected extracts:

What these Authors don’t realise is that even if it is assumed, as they do, that linearization of Einstein’s field equations is admissible (which they have not proven or even addressed), the “simple wave equation” they refer to is in fact coordinate dependent. Consequently the speed of propagation of the ‘gravitational waves’ they allude to is coordinate dependent. In other words, the speed of propagation of Einstein’s gravitational waves can be given any speed one likes, by a simple change of coordinates. Einstein merely wished his gravitational waves to propagate at speed c (light in vacuum) and so he deliberately chose a set of coordinates to make it so. The wave equation obtained from the linearised field equations is not unique at all.

The speed of propagation of Einstein’s gravitational waves is not deduced from Einstein’s linearised form of his field equations; it is set by hypothesis and a set of coordinates deliberately chosen to satisfy the hypothesis.

…Consequently the black hole and the big bang are mutually exclusive – they cannot coexist. This fact alone completely invalidates the entire contents of their paper.

Furthermore, since all alleged black hole universes and all alleged big bang universes are obtained from the nonlinear field equations, the Principle of Superposition is not valid in relation to them. One cannot therefore superpose any alleged black hole universe upon any alleged big bang universe or upon any other alleged black hole universe. Similarly one cannot superpose any alleged big bang universe upon any alleged black hole universe or upon any other alleged big bang universe.

One cannot superpose any matter and radiation onto any black hole universe or big bang universe in order to get stars and galaxies and accretion discs and jets and planets, multiple black holes, black hole binaries, etc. To do so violates the mathematical structure of General Relativity. However, superposition is precisely how the astrophysical scientists have generated their big bang universe with its multiple black holes and black hole binaries and stars and galaxies etc. It is easy to express this mathematically.

Let X and Y be solutions to Einstein’s field equations. It does not matter if X and Y are the same or different. Let a and b be scalars. Then the linear combination aX + bY is not a solution to Einstein’s field equations, because General Relativity is nonlinear.

To amplify further, let X be an alleged black hole solution to Einstein’s field equations and let Y be an alleged big bang solution to Einstein’s field equations. Then the linear combination (i.e. superposition) X + Y is not a solution to Einstein’s field equations, because General Relativity is nonlinear. Indeed, in this particular case X and Y relate to completely different sets of Einstein’s field equations and so they bear no relation to one another whatsoever.

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Read more at: http://viXra.org/abs/1310.0202

Tags: big bang, black hole, field equations, Fromholz, General Relativity, gravitational waves, Poisson, Principle of Superposition, Stephen J Crothers, Will. Albert Einstein

## Plchampness

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Which one exists, the black hole or the big bang universe?

My difficulty with the big bang universe is that it supposes that everything that now exists came from nothing.