Neutron Repulsion: Powers Beyond the Dreams of Scientific Fiction
Written by Professor Oliver K Manuel
Professor Oliver K Manuel has been a pioneer of the theory that the Sun’s core is neutron-rich. In his new paper ‘Neutron Repulsion: Powers Beyond the Dreams of Scientific Fiction’ he seeks to share experimental evidence of neutron repulsion with others – and to show graphically why elusive neutron repulsion was overlooked as the likely source of “powers beyond the dreams of scientific fiction” in the development of nuclear energy – before neutron repulsion is presented for public discussion at the London GeoEthics Conference on Climate Change on September 8-9, 2016.
Below is an extract:
Aston first suggested atomic “powers beyond the dreams of scientific fiction” in the last paragraph of his 1922 Nobel Lecture, ten year before the neutron was discovered in 1932. Aston’s expression of nuclear “packing fraction” was largely replaced in nuclear science textbooks after 1935 by the cunning concept of nuclear “binding energy,” based on the neutron-proton model of the atomic nucleus.
When Aston repeated his Nobel Lecture at the Imperial University of Tokyo in 1936, a talented 19-year-old student apparently recognized the discrepancy between measured “packing fraction” and calculated “binding energy.” Soon after neutron-induced fission of uranium was first reported in early 1939, other scientists independently reported numbers of secondary neutrons released during fission that might induce a self-sustaining chain of nuclear reactions. This became the basis for nuclear secrets and atomic bomb production during WWII. Three-dimensional plots of precise atomic rest mass data from Brookhaven National Laboratory revealed neutron repulsion as a powerful, short-range nuclear force in 2000. Neutron repulsion was later identified as the trigger for neutron-emission from pulsar cores of ordinary stars, like the Sun, and the primary source of solar energy.
Einstein (1905) reported mass (m) is stored energy (E) before it was known that atoms of the same element may have different atomic masses. Aston used the mass spectrograph to identify isotopes of several elements, measured and reported their masses as nuclear “packing fractions,” and reported that these offer the human race command over “powers beyond the dreams of scientific fiction” in the last paragraph of his Nobel Lecture (Aston, 1922). Chadwick (1932) later discovered the neutron and described it as “a proton and an electron in close combination,” thus explaining why Aston observed only whole integer values of atomic mass numbers. Weizsäcker (1935) developed the concept of nuclear “binding energy” based on the neutron-proton model of the nucleus. Bethe and Bacher (1936) also used the neutron-proton model of the nucleus to explain stationary states of nuclei. When Aston repeated his 1922 Nobel Lecture at the Imperial University of Tokyo in 13 June 1936, Kuroda (1992) noticed and commented on an apparent misunderstanding of nuclear “packing fraction” that will be illustrated here in the neutron-proton model of nuclear “binding energy.”
After neutron-induced fission of uranium was discovered (Hahn and Strassman, 1939), other scientists independently discovered and reported the number of secondary neutrons released and the possibility of neutron-induced self-sustaining chain of nuclear reactions in 1939 (Anderson et al., 1939; Hagiwara, 1939;
Halban et al., 1939; Zinn and Szilard, 1939). Bohr and Wheeler (1939) used the neutron-proton model of the nucleus in proposing a mechanism for nuclear fission.
Neutron repulsion is a nuclear force that offers the human race command over “powers beyond the dreams of scientific fiction” (Aston, 1922). Neutron repulsion is of interest to scientists studying global climate change because most solar energy is produced by neutron repulsion in the Sun’s pulsar core (Manuel, 2016) illustrated in Figure 4. (see above)